Table of Contents
The article to be criticized is titled Homeland Security Risk and Preparedness in policies Agencies. It is authored by Mathew J. Giblin1 and Melissa R.Haynes. The article talks about issues related to security and terrorism in the society. From the article’s perception, the issues related to Homeland Security Preparedness and incidents of homeland security have gained support that is considerable in literature policing (Haynes & Giblin, 2014). At the same time, it gives an ideology on theory rationally, whereby organizations are answerable to the external risk they encounter in their environment whereby they take part in preparing incidents of Homeland Security.
Previous studies have scrutinized the levels of Homeland Security Preparedness through executive agencies whereby the risk has been measured typically by observing the specific likelihood incidents of Homeland Security occurs as per their jurisdiction within a specific range of time and has ignored the risk factors in a huge way. In other cases, organizations within the government and researchers have different ideologies used in assessing consequences, vulnerability, threat and risk they ponder upon three dimensions (Haynes & Giblin, 2014). According to the current study, the social vulnerability is susceptible to the risk factors, build an environment that is fair and experience hazards, which are historic, which failed to predict perception of risk but cannot have an association with the measures used during the preparation. However, consistency with the research that was carried earlier, the perception of subjective risk remains important to the levels of preparedness predictor.
Critic and Overview of the Article
The article looks back at the events, which took place during the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, whereby there was an increase in the role of the policies, which involved the function of the Department of Homeland Security (Haynes & Giblin, 2014). According to the article, it is expected that the department policies will be established by undertaking an unprecedented role in preventing themselves from terrorism as their first action of defense and in their incidents cases as their first responders and recovery that is mainly operating.
Based on the demonstration by the article, numerous of steps have been taken by policies agencies to prepare security incidents that are related to homeland such as taking part in security training in relation to the homeland, establishing special units, the and modifying mutual agreements (Haynes & Giblin, 2014). The federal government has recognized this role through giving support to the agencies related to the law enforcement as per external grants. At the end of the fiscal year of 2012, the DHS raised $1.3 billion, which was used for preparedness purposes.
The article also talks about some concepts and issues that are related to security and terrorism. The first issue is based on contingency theory. In order to gain effectiveness and have a fit within the environment, contingency theory makes sure the organizations rational and dynamics are adapted to the contingencies. In the article in 2011, Donaldson’s adaptation structure aim of attaining fit through the model of (SARFIT) suggested that once an organization is removed from the fit with their surrounding they should reform their structures in order to recover its performance and regenerate fit.
To the organization’s law enforcement the theory has been used. In research related to terrorism, contingency theory involves theory such as having Homeland Security risks. When applying to the gang unit creations and community innovation policing less experimental support has been gained through the contingency theory whereas through giving a proper explanation of the security homeland preparedness the theory has been able to obtain supports, which are considerable.
Despite having same similarities, the previous ideology suggested by the article indicates that it has encountered differences that are slight in the preparedness and operationalized risk. As an important predictor related to the preparedness of Homeland security, there has been the existence of constant risk (Haynes & Giblin, 2014). Moreover, national surveys have demonstrated this through addressing the issues regarding the terrorism preparedness state in the United States among the agencies of local law enforcement, through municipal agencies both large and small across illusions and in agencies of a small sample of municipals, which are small.
The article instigates that the observed risk is related positively to the activities of the preparedness. The contingency theory is supported through observing the risk, which is related positively to the activities in relation to the preparedness. Generally, through proxy measure contingency theory has been scrutinized using the experimental risk of actual risk. These risk measures both objective reality and subjective view are isolated (Haynes & Giblin, 2014). According to the article, only one objective risk is measured as a factor. Using data related to the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics assessment, a composite indicator was used by Robert in constructing environments that are vulnerable in predicting if the departments had participated in the five steps in preparing security related to homeland incidents. The outcome of the constructed environment vulnerability was not an important predictor of the security related to the homeland preparedness.
Another point that the article stresses is the objective theory whereby it indicates that the issues related to terrorism can be calculated using different risk objectives whereby the model of Threat Vulnerability Consequences is applicable. This is the combination of vulnerability consequences and threat. Apart from having injuries and fatalities, the economy will also collapse (Haynes & Giblin, 2014). It might be difficult to calculate threat in this model, therefore; terrorists can also use the established ideologies. In probabilistic terms in an even, the exact probability is measured.
However, the threat might be calculated through intelligent experts within the community. Based on the outcome of the previous hazards, by using the TVC model in the current study threat work together with the risk perception, that is vulnerable to the consequences, built environment and the social. The article elaborates that vulnerability is one of the ways that push places or individuals into risk whereby the outcome of the condition reduces the individuals focus on responding to the threats of the environment (Haynes & Giblin, 2014). The potential of harming certain individuals can be measured by the social vulnerability whereas it is challenging for the measures of social vulnerability.
The article also looks at some of the measure taken by homeland security across America. It gives room to the SOVI of the higher values, which is related to the social vulnerability higher levels and comparative analyses. Through the empirical studies, Myriad variables in the SOVI index are also encompassed as they will be linked to the social vulnerability in order for every to have the best sources and broader description. For instance, gender inclusion is allowed whereby the women will find it difficult to recover from the disasters.
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The method that was used in the article was based on the old and the present data collection through a national survey done in 2011 of law enforcement agencies of 350 small. The survey assisted in the establishment of the article in dealing with terrorism risks and security related to Homeland Preparedness. The indicators can be combined with different risk measures, which have been acquired from other sources, which give room to examine the relationship between the organizational preparedness, objective and subjective risk.
The article also uses samples in order to identify the organization’s population, which comprises of the law enforcement. By using this survey instruments in addressing a collection of topics observed risks related to homeland security, environmental influences, connecting with other peer s agencies and preparedness activities (Steelman & McCaffrey, 2013). Different variables were used in coming up with methods of research in the article. Preparedness is among the dependent variable interests whereby the law enforcement steps are taken with the aim to respond, respond and prevent from security related homeland incidents.
Through a proper survey, they attained the correct respondents with descriptions that were brief of 13steps whereby activities were tailored to increase preparedness and to give an indication of the practice to give clear answers related to the organization. Another method that was applicable in the article was the independent variables which was used in measuring the TVC risk model that involved hazards, risk social vulnerability and constructed environment vulnerability. In order to reduce the items of the certain number into a lesser number of latent components, different factors were established through series.
The result of the article indicates that there is a positive relation between security related to homeland incidents and terrorism risk as per the law enforcement agencies. to the common outcomes from the present study result, there is an additional support whereby observed risk is important in association with the index preparedness (Steelman & McCaffrey, 2013). Numerous models of regression were applied in order to address whether the risk concrete or objective indicators affected security related to homeland preparedness activities. according to the article, the second model indicates the effects of the regression of the model preparedness upon the10 indicators of constructed environment vulnerability, social vulnerability, and hazards whereas the third model in the article continue being important even after managing the social vulnerability, constructed vulnerability and the hazards but some other factors may not be seen to emerge.
In conjunction with the terrorism risk and security related to homeland, incidents have gained a lot of support, which is considerable in the literature policing. In accordance with the perception of the contingency theory rationally, organization respond quickly to the external environment risk by taking part in the steps of preparing security related to homeland incidents (Haynes & Giblin, 2014). In the article, the factor that is conducive and important is a threat in the levels of preparedness as it is measured with the risk subjective of the terrorist incidents. In the levels of preparedness, consequences and objective vulnerability are not related. The perception of the measures of the objective risk was also not related to the subjective risk.
Conclusion and Point Of View
From another angle, the article has failed to tackle the importance of the establishment of the Homeland security in its quest to deal with terrorism and security related issues. For instance, the article has not touched on the manner in which the Americans are protected from threats of the terrorist. This should be put across to the communities, families, and the private sectors, the first respondent, and local government. My suggestion is that every source suitable in the case of preparedness and prevention should assist Americans in living safely without having any kind of fear. A new partnership with allies of the international nations has been placed aside Since January, in order to provide suitable tools used in fighting terrorism. At transportation hubs and critical infrastructure new resources has been used to identify threats and protect individuals against it. At the same time, individuals have joined together in working hand in hand with the law enforcement, tribal, local and state by strengthening their effort of sharing information.
In order to fulfill our missions, we should ensure that our borders are safely guarded also the seaports. Each year, we deport and apprehend illegal immigrants of about more than a million. Therefore, this proves that some of the individuals that try to cross the border are not trusted others might be terrorist since countless of them try to cross the border, so it should be closed to ensure safety and avoid individuals from having fear (Steelman & McCaffrey, 2013). With the aim to tighten the security, a new creativity on the Southern border was applied with the essence to dislocate the cash, weapon and drugs smuggling that assist in causing violence in countries. For instance Mexico. Legal immigration should be facilitated in order to track down the individuals that violate the laws of the nation.
A sense of vigilance should be established faster in nations as individuals encounter flood, hurricanes, and tornadoes even as individuals encounter health outbreaks such as H1N1 flu. In all categories, the department plays a role, which is critical in assisting the long-term recovery, preparation of the disaster and response. Since January, numerous individuals have participated in working together in coordination that is so close to the local authorities and the state to fight back the severe storms in Missouri, Kentucky, and Arkansas and floods in Minnesota and North Dakota (Steelman & McCaffrey, 2013). Huge steps have been taken by numerous individuals to increase the recovery efforts in consolidating offices that eradicate redundancies, building the decision making process and the Gulf Coast Region. Individuals took an extensive step to initiate the effort of the federal governments in the aim of controlling the H1N1 outbreak of flu.
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- Haynes, M. R., & Giblin, M. J. (January 01, 2014). Homeland Security Risk and Preparedness in Police Agencies: The Insignificance of Actual Risk Factors. Police Quarterly, 17, 1, 30-53.
- Steelman, T. A., & McCaffrey, S. M. (January 01, 2013). Best practices in risk and crisis communication: Implications for natural hazards management. Natural Hazards.