Depression: causes and consequences

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Depression serves as one of the most common mental disorders affecting human life and activities during the contemporary era, which certainly challenges and disturbs the normal mental condition of the individuals (Bhowmik et al. 37). Depression may lead to severe state of anger, anxiety, frustration, despair, quarrels, drug and alcohol dependency (Doweiko 58), and even suicide subsequently (Liotti & Mayberg 121). The individuals may experience long duration of depressive condition, which tends to cause serious trauma, mental or physical disability and even death (Bhowmik et al. 37-8). Despite the fact that the state of depression can instigate multiple consequences, suicide serves as the most serious outcome of depression, under which man prepares to take his own life out of sheer feelings of disappointment and dejection (Bhowmik et al. 39).

Depression does not simply reflect the feelings of gloominess or getting upset; rather, it is severe in nature, which may last long for hours and even days (Doweiko 33). Theorists have suggested multiple causes behind depression, which include domestic violence, unemployment, poverty, bullying at school or workplace, instable financial or emotional situation and others (Eriksen et al. 22). The researches ascertain that two major brain areas including the prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate and the hippocampus may affect the mind in such a way that man experiences abnormality and subsequent depression (Schatzberg 1077). It not only creates impediments on the way to normal mental and physical performance of the individuals, but also causes serious illness and death of the patient (Schatzberg 1078).

Unemployment serves as one of the most dynamic causes of depression, where lack of financial flow and idleness tend to destroy mental peace and tranquility of the individual undergoing joblessness (Bhowmik et al. 40). Since almost all comforts are claimed to be associated with finances, which help humans in respect of obtaining bread, clothes, shelter, medical treatment, recreation and other basic needs and comforts, one’s remaining unemployed tend to deprive him of even the most fundamental needs essential for leading a normal and respectable life (Zaidi 73). Not only this that an unemployed person dissociates himself from society, but also is forced to lead the life of isolation in wake of lacking finances and employment necessary for his survival and growth (McGee & Thompson 8-9). Consequently, on not being in position of feeding him and his family members, the unemployed individual experiences sheer attack of depression, duration of which extends with the period of time (Bhowmik et al. 40). Since extension and protraction of Major Depressive Episode (MDE) starts disturbing the mental peace to a great extent (Bhowmik et al. 37); man starts planning of committing suicide in order to escape the depression and financial ruination causing emotional trauma and psychological disorder (Bhowmik et al. 40).

Sexual harassment, assault and rape are also regarded to be the important causes of depression and emotional trauma (Allison 256). Consequently, the humans undergo intense frustration and depression in wake of becoming the victim of sexual assault. Besides, memories of sexual abuse leave such an adverse impact on the victim that they keep him/her mentally agonized and disturbed; and may also instigate the victim to commit suicide out of the sheer bout of depression eventually (Karuso 2002). The victim of sexual assault finds her to be a perturbed state of mind; on one side, physical torture and violence committed during rape have caused physical injuries; and on the other side, the feelings of being disgraced, humiliated and dishonored keep on damaging the soul and mind of the victim (Siegel, 341). At such a perturbed and extremely unpleasant state of affairs, the rape victim does not find any solution other than killing herself by committing suicide eventually (Siegel 342-3). Hence, it is depression and frustration, which force the rape victim to take her life in order to escape the incurable injuring on mind on one side, and for the sake of getting rid of the life of disgrace and humiliation experienced by a rape victim for the future years to come.

Bullying at school or workplace also comes under the definition of violence or torture one receives at the hands of classmates and co-workers respectively; which serves as one of the most detrimental causes of frustration and depression (Hershcovis et al. 6-7). Bullying is actually the repetitive act of irritating, exasperating and hurting the victims by the perpetrator either through words, or actions or both, with the aim of causing mental, emotional, physical and/or sexual harm to the victim (Eriksen et al. 4). Sometimes, the behavior of the bully is extremely tormenting and unbearable for the bullied that he may undergo extreme mental trauma out of the sheer bout of depression and despair. Not only this that the victim loses his confidence level and interest in studies, work and personal ambitions, but also decides to commit suicide to get rid of the constant attacks of the bully, which are really threatening to his normal mental condition, and cause psychological disorders eventually (Eriksen et al. 8-9). Thus, one’s becoming the victim of repetitive bullying can also force the individual to take his life by commit suicide.

To conclude, it becomes evident that depression serves as one of the most challenging social issues for the individuals across the globe, which may result into disabilities and sudden and unexpected deaths in its wake (Schatzberg 1077). Growing tensions at domestic, professional and social scales have their certain shares in the creation of depression among the individuals. Besides, unequal distribution of wealth, opportunities and resources also serve as the major causes of depression (Zaidi 61). Moreover, financial ruination, unemployment, bullying at educational institutions and professional organizations, domestic violence, and sexual assaults and rapes also serve as the major causes of severe depression. Long term and repetitive bouts of depression force the individuals to take their own lives by committing suicide because of not being able of overcoming the feelings of depression. There is an urgent need of the elimination of unemployment, injustice, bullying, crimes and domestic violence, so that the individuals can be motivated and stopped from committing suicide.

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  1. Bhowmik, Debjit., Kumar, K.P. Sampath., Srivastava, Shweta., Paswan, Shravan., & Dutta, Amit Sankar. Depression – Symptoms, Causes, Medications and Therapies. Vol. 1 No. 3, 2012 37-51.
  2. Doweiko, Harold E. Concepts of Chemical Dependency. London: Wadsworth Pub Co. 2006. Print. ISBN: 053463284X
  3. Eriksen, Tine Louise Mundbjerg., Nielsen, Helena Skyt., & Simonsen, Marianne. The Effects of Bullying in Elementary School. Discussion papers Series, July, IZA DP No. 6718, 2012 4-45.
  4. Hershcovis, M. Sandy., Reich, Tara C., & Niven, Karen. Workplace Bullying: Causes, Consequences, and Intervention Strategies. Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc. 2015 3-20.
  5. Liotti M, Mayberg HS: The role of functional neuroimaging in the neuropsychology of depression. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 123; 2001 121–136.
  6. McGee, R.E., & Thompson, N.J. Unemployment and Depression among Emerging Adults in 12 States. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2010. Prev Chronic Dis 2015;12:140451. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd12.140451
  7. Schatzberg, Alan F. Major Depression: Causes or Effects? Am J Psychiatry 159:7, July, 2002 1077-79.
  8. Siegel, Larry J. Criminology. New York: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
  9. Zaidi, Mujtaba Haider. Veto Oligarchy: The Fittest Deserve Supremacy. Lahore: Dastavez Matbuaat, 2016. Print. ISBN: 978-969-8422-29-5.
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