Table of Contents
Crime prevention is a multi-disciplinary practical application preventive measure of crime through a series of attitudes and behaviors that are mediated and aimed at decreasing the crime threats in the society. In this case, it targets at enhancing the sense of individual and communal safety and improvement of security. Crime prevention is significant because it positively influences the quality of life in the lives and their community at large and it gives an environment of economic development and not crime flourish. Research indicates that crime preventions are ways that the citizens apply in order to protect themselves better while having the objective of keeping the community and their neighbors crime-free. Based on research that has been conducting reveals that crime is the act of committing activities that are against the will of the law (Cozens & Love, 2015). Organized crime poses many risks to public safety as such it presents a hindrance to social, political, and economic development in society across the globe. Criminal activities manifest themselves in different ways in the society. This ranges from the trafficking of illegal drugs, migrant smuggling, corruption, arms trafficking and rape. Also trafficking in person is a criminal offense. A recent study of crime and criminal justice revealed that increasing levels of globalization are sourcing organized crime. As such it is evident that it has affected and resulted in deep transformations in the levels of many individuals, communities as well as states (Lab, 2014). However, these criminal activities can be prevented. This can be achieved through various crime detection and prevention as either primary or secondary crime prevention. In this case, this paper will tend to discuss crime prevention in the society extensively.
Criminal offenses in the society recently are increasing. This is because of the revolution of the world together with the technological advancements and innovations that have been broadly applied by criminals to carry out the criminal activities. Research indicates this has resulted due to the influence of globalization. As such the crime rates have increasingly hiked with an approximation of 44%. This ranges all from violent victimizations, drug trafficking, migrant smuggling and money laundering. The criminal activities have acted as a hindrance to social, economic and political development because of the poor security (Cozens & Love, 2015). Because of the high rates of crime occurrences in the society, individuals, the society and the states at large initiated ways and policies of crime prevention. In this case, crime prevention involves application preventive measures of crime through a series of attitudes and behaviors that are mediated and aimed at reducing the crime threats in the society. It further includes techniques that can be used to reduce or prevent the crimes from occurring (Cozens & Love, 2015). As such, this research paper will provide an in-depth and critical discussion of crime prevention; bring forth the various forms of crime prevention that can be applied in preventing crime.
Based on research conducted showed that all types of crime prevention are viable based on the nature of crime in which they have been applied. The research further conforms to Primary crime prevention tends to address individual and family-based factors that are related to criminal activity participation. Personal level based factors would include participation violence’s in school children (Sorsby, 2018). Secondary crime prevention is another level that also has been used in the reduction of the criminal activities in the society. Research indicates that it employs the use of intervention techniques to reduce or prevent the occurrence of crimes. These interventions are focused on the youths to prevent the commission of crimes by the youths. It tends to target social programs as well as law enforcement in the community and neighborhood in which the rates of crimes are high. Finally, tertiary crime prevention is applied after the occurrence of a crime (Weisburd, 2018). This is essential because it prevents similar or related successive incidents from reoccurring. All these types of crime prevention work to reduce and prevent criminal activities occurrences in the society.
The various approaches of crime prevention
Based on crime occurrence research that was conducted, there are various approaches to crime prevention. However, these approaches differ in terms of their level of intervention focus, the deliverable activities as well as the desired actions of the approach. Additionally, they are based on different theories and varied underlying rationales. As such it is crucial that the factors be carefully evaluated before application of an approach in crime prevention (Cozens & Love, 2015). The approaches include environmental, urban design and planning, situational, developmental, community development approach and social crime prevention approaches.
Situational crime prevention approach
Studies indicate that this approach targets at the modification of the context factors to restrict the chances to the criminals to carry out their criminal activities or get involved with criminal behaviors. In this case, is based on the idea that crimes are often opportunistic. It comprises of a variety of measures that outlines the importance of aiming the very specific crime forms that occur in some circumstances. This approaches take initiatives in identification, manipulation and controlling the situational factors that give opportunities to criminal activities to take place (Weisburd, 2018). The research further shows that this approach is based on the assumptions and aimed at the nature of the offending and of offenders. In this case, there are underlying key elements of situational crime prevention approach. They include the primary opportunity theories which are routine activities, crime patterns as well as the rational choice theory. Secondly, it also relies on the study actions and methodological techniques that include analyzing of certain crime challenges and the attributing factors then identification of the possible responses and correct selection and implementation of the most suitable or promising technique (Newman & Clarke, 2016). Another element of situational crime prevention is the classification of its twenty-five situational crime prevention techniques. Lastly is the growing body composed of assessed and evaluated projects as well as related examples of varied types of strategies that can apply to certain or specific crimes.
Based on the theory of routine activity, it tends to analyze elements of a crime occurrence. These include the motivation level of an offender, suitability of a target as well as the possibility of absence of a capable security guard. In this case, it helps the criminal and justice and investigators to understand how the societal changes can influence opportunities for criminal activities (Weisburd, 2018). The theory of crime pattern is essential in crime prevention because it elaborates the impact of community and neighborhoods and how criminals come across opportunities for crimes committed. Lastly, rational choice theory focuses on individual analysis and exploration of processes that are involved in decision making which can lead a criminal to decide to be involved in criminal activity (Cozens & Love, 2015). In this case, situational crime prevention approach prevents crime through the provision of enhanced security. This is achieved through strengthening of the locks and involving improved surveillance.
Environmental crime prevention approach
Recent research reveals that environmental crime prevention technique broadly covers or rather includes the crime prevention techniques of situational and urban design and planning crime prevention approaches. The main objective of this approach is to attempt and modify the physical environments to reduce the chances of criminal activities from occurring. This approach seeks to change the design and the specific features or descriptive characteristics of the environment that attracts criminal activities to take place (Cozens & Love, 2015). That is why it mainly aims at modifying the physical environments to decrease the opportunities for crime occurrences.
Urban design and planning approach
This approach provides a wide range of planning and design initiatives that included in the CPTED and other urban project renewal strategies. It seeks to prevent crimes through reduction of crime opportunities via the design and management building plans and the landscape environments. In this approach, crime prevention is perceived as an essential decision in the generation of urban programs (Newman & Clarke, 2016). This is because it involves strategies that modify the built environments to come up with secure places which are less prone to crimes. Additionally CPTED largely influences prevention of crimes policy.
Social crime prevention approach
Crime prevention approach focuses on economic causes and other social related causes of crime rather than the physical environment. It includes prevention measures that are used over long-term to produce effective results. For instance, it could be reasons to improve housing, health or educational purposes and social cohesion for developmental purposes. Its sub-approach includes developmental crime prevention. This initiative is considerably used in many states with the aim of preventing crimes (Cozens & Love, 2015). The research indicates that huge investments have been involved in support of intervention programs. Many of the programs are based on explicit objectives of crime prevention. The assumptions that this approach is based on is that intervening earlier in a youth’s development can result in prolonged social and economic outcomes (Newman & Clarke, 2016). In this case, this approach tends to prevent crimes earlier before they occur. This is done through interventions programs which are aimed at preventing crimes earlier.
In summary, criminal activities in the society hinder economic, social and political development. This is because it limits individuals, community and the state the freedom and peace of mind because they are insecure all the time. It is for that reason that strategies or initiatives for crime prevention are established. Crime prevention involves measures that are taken with the aim of reducing crime activities in the society. As already indicated, several types of research have been conducted on the various approaches of crime prevention. The different crime preventions include environmental approach, situational, social, and urban design and planning approach. They are different because of their varied objectives, theoretical basis, and deliverable results. How both of them have a common goal; prevention and reduction of crimes in the society. Situational crime prevention approach tends to evaluate the situations that result in criminal activities. In doing so, the approach will prevent the situation of the criminal activities from occurring. Environment approach is based on the nature of the environment that is surrounding a potential crime site or what makes the site attractive to criminals. While social crime prevention theory is based on development that is economic benefits, urban design and planning approach tends to prevent crimes through reductions of criminal activities through design and management building as well as the landscape environments.
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- Cozens, P., & Love, T. (2015). A review and current status of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). Journal of Planning Literature, 30(4), 393–412.
- Lab, S. P. (2014). Crime Prevention: Approaches, practices, and evaluations. Anderson.
- Newman, G., & Clarke, R. V. (2016). Rational choice and situational crime prevention: Theoretical foundations. Routledge.
- Sorsby, A. (2018). Preventing crime: a holistic approach. Taylor & Francis.
- Weisburd, D. (2018). From criminals to criminal contexts: Reorienting crime prevention research and policy. In Crime and social organization (pp. 215–234). Routledge.