Table of Contents
History and Development
The UK film industry under the aspect of its varying culture primarily focuses on the people and often casts a storyline based on life in the UK. Thus, this involves aspects from the pasts, present or even future. Incentives in the film industry of the UK have been a major factor for most of its development. This is due to the fact that they are benefited from paying taxes, which has given a significant boost in the UK film industry, as it focuses on involving a mixture of culture, as well as, commerce. The UK film industry always brings a major importance to the country in an economic along with cultural way. For the last five consecutive years, the UK film industry has generated an income of £1.7 billion relating to the investments made in overseas. Additionally, the UK film industry also invested £1.1 billion domestically. Summing the amount up, it has generated revenue of around £3 billion (Nelmes, 2003).
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Films also play a major key role in showing direction to various mixed industries that are created in the UK since the invention of television. These creative industries add up in the economy of the UK summing up to gross domestic product (GDP) of 7.9%. The UK film industry has been found to grow at a rapid speed as compared to the economy of the nation. This fast development of UK film industry has also played an important role for the increasing growth of hi-tech sector within the UK. This comprises high skills, new technologies, and innovative techniques. After the establishment of the UK strategic agency along with the government activities, the film industry of the UK was observed to focus on stimulating a successful, competitive, and vibrant industry including its culture. This further included promoting of the cinemas throughout the UK (House of Commons Culture, Media and Sport Committee, 2003).
Economy of Scale of Film Industry
In the present day purview, the main UK film industry is observed to be a sizeable industry and has made a significant growth under the national economy of the UK, as it employs about 43,900 people on a full time basis. The film industry of the UK can create up to a total of 117,400 jobs on a full time basis considering the areas of supply chain along with the contribution from tourism involving trade (Oxford Economics, 2012). The film industry in the UK supports the economy by giving jobs only to highly qualified workers of country. Thus, it has been evident that the UK film industry comprises 58% employees, who attained education from notable universities with an average salary of almost £33,700, which is considerably greater than the average in the national level (Doyle, 2015; Oxford Economics, 2010).
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The UK films substantially contribute to the cultural life of the country, which is considered to be identifying and addressing the challenges which are faced at the present era. Various films showcasing in the UK are responsible for generating revenue, which is almost ten times as compared to the overseas. Exporters around the world as a part of the UK film play an essential role in creating a brand image. In addition, a total of £4.5 billion was contributed by the film industry to the GDP of the UK in 2009 (Oxford Economics, 2010). This also included several tax reliefs and supports (Stationery Office, 2010).
The tax relief film of UK plays a major role in stabilising competitiveness within the film industry of the nation. Several estimations have suggested that the film industry’s contribution towards the GDP of the UK is around £1.4 billion on an annual basis, which can be lost owing to lack of focus on tax relief. Various economic benefits that are made by the film industry of the UK have been found to be under threat, as there has been a brisk increase in copyright issues of the audio-visual offerings, which is considered as theft or infringement (Oxford Economics, 2010).
Policy of the UK Film Industry
The UK film industry has set up policies with an objective of targeting audiences, as they are a considered as a major factor for the rapid growth of the industry. The policies have also been set up for bringing a commitment for the development of every film within the country. Significant investments are required to be made in the film industry to carry out all of the above objectives and achieve them (Reeves, 2011). In order to focus on different emerging markets, a comprehensive policy or strategy was setup. This policy also added growth to the UK’s sales agents for expanding their business (Houseley et.al., 2013).
The government of the UK established a review in film policy that was led by Stewart Till more than a decade ago. This policy brought a bigger picture for providing solutions to every question rising in the industry. The establishment of the policy by the government of the UK stated certain objectives to be reviewed. Some of them were projecting a greater consistency in the film industry of the UK, knowing the best way to set up direct policy for increasing the overall funding of lottery, seeking the development and keep talents within the country itself along with making the film demands increase more (Houseley et.al., 2013).
Based on this policy, there were some reviews made by the government, which underlined less efficient areas. Based on these areas, a newer policy was asked to develop on the basis of certain evidences. Later on, it stated that the policy which was to be setup must be transparent and include all the requirements relating to stakeholder’s review. Therefore, the UK film industry ultimately recognized a major goal of the policy. Contextually, the major goal focused on connecting the policy to diverse range of UK audiences with a wide array of the UK films along with global cinema. This resulted in increasing audience viewing, as well as, the growth of every sector of the UK film industry (Crown, 2012).
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Current Situation of the UK Film Industry
The current situation of the UK has been deemed to concentrate on continuing the development of its new talents, as well as, global performance.
In keeping with the analysis made in the year 2016, around 80,000 people appeared to be working in the UK film industry, out of which almost 55,000 people were working in video production and filming. Approximate of 57% of film industry and video production in the UK manpower was within the periphery of London, along with South East. Almost half of the people accounting for 49% working in the video production and filming were observed to be freelancers (Low, 2013). Directors in the UK film industry accounted for 13% of women. In addition, 16% of the writers of the UK films were also found to be women, whereas in 2016, the number decreased to 9% and 14% respectively. Most film productions had fewer employees involved in the video production and filming, where 97% workplace involved only 10 workers or even fewer (BFI Research and Statistics, 2017).
The council of the UK film industry published a well developed report, produced with creative skills, which depicted the strategy along with its action plan for various training involved in the film industry of the UK. The strategy here targets the investments into certain areas, which needed utmost priority. The UK film council has allocated almost £6.3 million for certain practices and training in the industry (House of Commons Culture, Media and Sport Committee, 2003).
The UK film industry exerts weight under the aspect of its market size along with its production activity, as well as, talent. The UK film industry still depends on the companies of the USA. Cinema is the main platform of the UK film industry, whereas TV has the highest earning of revenue, as well as, audience. As the entertainment is changing worldwide along with the UK, VOD (Video on Demand) is considered as a new platform in enabling the people for watching movies while on the move (Plunkett, 2007).
- BFI Research and Statistics, 2017. Employment in the Film Industry. The Workforce, pp. 1-10
- Crown, 2012. A Future For British Film It Begins With The Audience. This is the Report to Government by the Film Policy Review Panel, pp. 1-111.
- Doyle, G., 2015. Rise and Fall of the UK Film Council. Edinburgh University Press.
- House of Commons Culture, Media and Sport Committee, 2003. The British Film Industry. Sixth Report of Session 2002–03, Vol. 1, pp. 4-86.
- Houseley, W. et.al., 2013. Managing in the Media. Taylor and Francis.
- Low, R., 2013. History of British Film (Volume 4): The History of the British Film 1918 – 1929. Routledge.
- Nelmes, J., 2003. An Introduction to Film Studies. Psychology Press.
- Oxford Economics, 2010. The Economic Impact of the UK Film Industry. UK Film Council, pp. 1-108.
- Oxford Economics, 2012. The Economic Impact of the UK Film Industry. British Film Institute, Pinewood Shepperton plc, British Film Commission and Creative England, pp. 1-106.
- Plunkett, J. W., 2007. Plunkett’s Entertainment and Media Industry Almanac: The Only Comprehensive Guide to the Entertainment and Media Industry. Plunkett Research.
- Reeves, N., 2011. Power of Film Propaganda. A and C Black.
- Stationery Office, 2010. The British Film And Television Industries: Decline Or Opportunity?, 1st Report Of Session 2009-10, Vol. 2: Evidence. The Stationery Office.
- Great Britain: Parliament: House of Lords: Select Committee on Communications, 2010. The British Film And Television Industries: Decline Or opportunity?, 1st Report Of Session 2009-10, Vol. 1: Report. The Stationery Office.
- Harbord, J., 2002. Film Cultures. SAGE
- Kerrigan, F., 2010. Film Marketing. Routledge.