Table of Contents
The concept of security has been used different and hence has different meanings. It has become something of a cottage industry to redefine security as most of the efforts are mainly concerned with the redefinition of the approach motivation in regards to the country-states as opposed to with the idea of security itself. Essentially, this involves recommendations for giving high need to the issues identified with human rights, nature, economies, scourges, social equity, sedate activity or wrongdoing and the customary worry with the security from the outside military dangers (Abrahamsen & Williams, 2009, 2). This paper aims at presenting the different meanings of security using different theories of security. The main security theories are theory of securitization, strategic culture approach, regional security complex theory, idea of common security and offense-defence theory (Kempen, 2013, 2).
Types of security
The regional security complex theory provides a suitable framework for analysing the security issues by putting the main focus on the security environment at the regional level (Kempen, 2013, 7). This is in line with the speech. For instance, it is the role of the neighbouring countries to provide security to the Syrians. They need to offer the emergency assistance in addition to long lasting solutions. The countries not only need to host the refugees but also need to engage in finding a solution to the warring parties to ensure the Syrians go home and have a decent life. With regards to the regional security complex theory, touchstones such as human rights, international law and basic compassion should govern the actions of the neighbouring nations in trying to find lasting solutions to the Syrian crisis (Abrahamsen & Williams, 2009, 12). Therefore, the countries need to uphold the values of the UN and provide refuge to the affected people. At the regional level, there ought to be far reaching way to deal with the displaced person and relocation emergency. This will help in providing security by cracking down on the traffickers thereby addressing the pressures faced by the countries of destination of the refugees. The nations must also work together is combating discrimination by looking at the root causes in the country of origin. The regional countries need to tackle the security issues by working towards eliminating or stopping the extremism, oppression, fear and destruction in Syria. Although the responsibility to end the conflict lies first and foremost with the warring parties in Syria, it is also the duty of the neighboring countries to aid in mediating to find an amicable and long lasting solution to the Syrian crisis (Kempen, 2013, 12).
This give rise to a use of security referred to as the human security. This is a practical and dynamic framework used in addressing the widespread and cross-cutting threats that faces the people and the government. Human security refers to an approach to international and national security that gives primacy to the humans as well as the complex economic and social interactions. It focuses on the state’s security thus protecting the individuals from the military and nontraditional threats like disease and poverty. Therefore, it is the duty of the international nations to stop the inflow of money and weapons into Syria. It is the responsibility of the regional powers as well as rivalries to stop fueling the war and ensure human security (Abrahamsen & Williams, 2009, 6).
The regional powers as well as international nations need to forge peaceful settlement instead of leaving the duty to the Security Council alone because when they step forward, an amicable solution will be arrived at as they hold the key. The regional powers such as Turkey, Russia, Iran, the U.S. and Saudi Arabia should compromise with each other so as to ensure effective and lasting change on the ground. This will provide human security to the innocent Syrians who are paying the price of acts of terrorism and more barrel bombs. The countries need to up their commitment to justice to stop the disregard for human life (Kempen, 2013, 2). They should compromise with each other to stop the air strikes by calling for an end to the bombings that continue destroying the Yemeni heritage, cities and infrastructure.
The second security theory is the theory of securitization which puts emphasis on the security process as well as the de-securitization of diverse issues and the phenomena thereby elucidating the failures and achievements of the process (Howard-Hassmann, 2012, 89). This leads to a second meaning of security which is the economy security or the financial security. This is the state of having stable assets or salary to help a given way of life of individuals as of now and within a reasonable time-frame. This entails job security or employment security, probable continued solvency and predictability of the individuals’ future cash flows or other economic entity like a country (Abrahamsen & Williams, 2009, 2). Economic security refers to the ability of communities, households or people to cover the needs with dignity and in s sustainable manner. This usually varies depending on physical needs of people, the prevailing cultural standards and the environment. However, the essential needs are clothing, food, hygiene and basic shelter.
As highlighted in the speech, remarkable changes should be ensured to reduce the harmful greenhouse emissions to reduce the pollution thus ensuring future economic security of people. The nations need to organize themselves better so as to reach the sustainable development gaols (Kempen, 2013, 2). Therefore, financing need to be provided for safe environment where people can work to earn a living today and in the future thus ensuring their economic security. Rather that squandering trillions of dollars in wasteful military spending, the world need to divert the funds to protect the environment for sustainability as the succeeding generations hugely depend on the current generation to get their priorities right thereby providing them with economic security (Barnett & Adger, 2007, 640). The increased spending in military has resulted in the worst suffering ever as there are many wars that destroy the economic stability of nations. This has led to the increased demand for immediate humanitarian assistance for the refugees.
The wars destroy the livelihood of the people, the cities, heritage and infrastructure. The continued destruction of resources affects the peoples’ economic security as they are not able to have food for consumption due to reduced food production. In addition, there is no stable income or no income at all, terrible living conditions and the lack of capacity by the government, civil society and the United Nations to help meet the economic security needs of the people. The worldwide humanitarian framework is bankrupt as it is not getting adequate cash to sufficiently save lives which has raised the level of suffering of the people due to reduced economic stability (Abrahamsen & Williams, 2009, 16).
On the other hand, the offense-defense theory greatly concentrates on vital security a phenomenon that is war and then attempting to increase the analysts’ ability to explain and predict it. And finally, the strategic culture approach refers to a quasi-theory that falls within the realm of constructivist security studies. These endeavors to present the analytical capabilities that relate to the epistemology of security in an approach that is distinct from the traditional approaches (Barnett & Adger, 2007, 645). The security’s main goal is to arrive at a suitable solution that ensures peaceful coexistence. This results in military security, national security and global security.
Military security refers to the ability of nations to defend themselves from external attack. It is the duty of the national security to preserve the country’s political identity, institutions and framework. However, in spending in to ensure military security countries need to provide planning and implementation of other measures that ensure the safety and security of the nations (Howard-Hassmann, 2012, 97). Regional countries need to protect and respect the viability, independence, sovereignty and the territorial integrity of other countries. Therefore, it is wrong for other countries to invade neighboring countries in the pretext of helping them fight the rebels while in essence they are just protecting the leaders in power which in actual sense are destroying the human security of the citizens (Barnett & Adger, 2007, 639).
In addition, the security entails the government protecting the state as well as its citizens against all forms of national crisis through the use of various power projections like economic power, political power, military might, diplomacy and other means necessary without invading other nations (Howard-Hassmann, 2012, 89). Therefore, to ensure national security, diplomacy should be used in rallying allies and isolating threats; economic power should be marshaled to facilitate or compel cooperation; effective armed forces should be maintained; emergency preparedness measures and civil defense should be implemented such as anti-terrorism legislation.
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In summation, critical infrastructure’s resilience and redundancy should be ensured; secret police or counterintelligence should be used in protecting the nation from internal threats; and intelligence services should be used in detecting and defeating or avoiding espionage and threats as well as to protect the classified information (Barnett & Adger, 2007, 639). This suggests the warring parties need to backpedal to the table to consult in accordance with some basic honesty and resolve the Syrian emergency through discourse that is encouraged by the Special Envoy. There is never military answer for the contention. The parties need to engage and re-engage under the pressure of the international community to eliminate the expanding settlements that are increasing provocations and incitements. Violent extremism and terrorism need to be countered and dialogue and patient diplomacy used on ensuring human security across the globe.
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