Table of Contents
D. Learning Theory
There exist different learning theories that play a critical role in developing critical thinking skills in a BSN program. These range from constructivist, cognitive and humanistic theories among others. The argument below focuses on examining the cognitivist theory and its contribution to critical thinking in a BSN program. The cognitive theory focuses on the brain and its application in critical thinking. The development of this ability influences an improvement in intellectual standards through which an awareness of one’s thinking and improving their thinking skills occur (Zehra, 2012). It is through these developments that an improvement in critical thinking occur leading to an improved approach to the BSN program.
The advantages associated with cognitive thinking in education include its ability to focus on the thought process, which is essential in learning. The ability of this theory work in combination with other theories associated with critical thinking including the behavioral theory, which increases its effectiveness in undertaking a BSN program. Sharf, (2015) adds that the theory also contributes to the improvement of the thinking on the program considering that it enhances beliefs, which is essential in building thinking premise by the prospective students. The theory is also of a disadvantage considering it dismisses essential factors that influence human behavior while focusing solely on the cognitive elements. Its development and focus has only rested based on controlled experiments, which may not provide a credible and reliable piece of evidence to its applicability in building critical thinking.
E. Educational Philosophies (Multiple Intelligence)
Multiple intelligences theory examines intelligence as part of many modalities and not as a single ability in a general perspective. The theory developed by Howard Gardner as of 1983 is made of various components that cover its application. These include self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management as detailed in the works of Loughran, (2012). Self-awareness focuses on the ability of one to read their own emotions while self-management focuses on the management of these emotions. Social awareness examines the ability to react to the emotions of others while the relationship management aspect examines one’s ability to develop others while at the same time managing emerging conflicts. One of the significant criticisms on this theory rests on the differences of multiple intelligence aspects from one classroom to another (Armstrong, 2009). The differences affect the application of the concept in a learning environment and hence affecting the development of a new BSN curriculum.
Some of the advantages of applying this theory include the ability it has in providing an opportunity for learning based on the needs, talents and interests of the students. It also increases the involvement of the parents of the students and the community as a whole hence influencing learning in the environment. This increases the positive contribution of the community and parents in the learning process for the students. The differences in classes and the application of multiple intelligence in a uniformed approach creates disadvantage to its use. The failure to consider other factors in the environment also adds to the challenges that the implementation of this theory may face.
F. Modalities Traditional Classroom & Online Education
The approach employed in educating students on the program influence the level of success achieved on the BSN program. Traditional classrooms and an online delivery approach influence improved learning for the students. The traditional classroom approach also referred to as the back-to-basic approach to teaching incorporates the conventional educational approaches. The selected approach ensures that students continue with a system they are already familiar with hence improving their ability to learn better. The teaching approach establishes a face-to-face method that emphasizes the learning abilities of the students. It encourages social interaction among the students further enhancing development and learning. It enables students to guide each other in the learning process. The structural approach that it emphasizes enables students to develop a discipline that makes learning effective the learning process. The system put in place monitors the activities of the students in and out of school. It also embraces coordination between the school and home environments ensuring they coordinate to ensure success in teaching the program. These occur as justifications for the traditional approach but also feature as barriers that lead to the consideration of the online approach. The difficulties of integrating other development aspects like working in the learning process due to the rigid nature of the system affect its application. The online approach on the other hand eases on the above barriers considering it provides a flexible approach to learning. It embraces an approach in which self-discipline of the student is key to success. The approach is justified in enabling working students and those living far from the institution to access the program.
G. Formative and Summative Assessments
Developing a culture of assessment in the learning program increases its efficiency. The assessments enable the teachers to identify the progress made and the learning effect that the program has on the students. The choice between the formative and the summative assessment is based on the benefits that each adds to the learning program. The formative assessment provides a platform in which the students are engaged actively increasing the effectiveness of the learning program. It enables the development of a discussion with the students that leads to increased questions on the subject, which further enhances understanding (Brockhart, 2010). The approach also provides a platform for motivation of the students. The limitations of this approach include the effectiveness of the formative assessment approach rests in the ability of the teacher to use the information obtained positively to influence success in the students. The system also increases the level of fatigue in the teaching process hence demoralizing the students.
The summative approach on the other hand provides the students with ample time to study the information provided in class before assessment. It increases their level of concentration and eases work for the teachers compared to the formative approach, which embraces regular assessments. The limitations with the method include the information obtained from the summative assessment approach is limited in application. It is also limited in helping teachers to adjust their programs. Classroom Assessment Techniques (CAT) enables the teachers to identify areas in which the students did not understand during the teaching process and hence enabling a review of the same to increase understanding. It also enables the teachers to identify the weaknesses of the students and hence embracing methods that will help in improving them. It is through this form of coordination between the teacher and the student that student success will increase in the new BSN program.
H. ANA Code of Ethics
Embracing the ANA code of ethics starts with training of the teachers or those implementing the program on the code of ethics. Training them will increase their ability to work within the provided standards. Constant refresher courses on the teaching fraternity will improve their understanding on the ANA code of ethics in turn improving its application of the same in the BSN program.
I. Legal Accountability
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
Keeping the students education records private is part of respecting the FERPA. The program will embrace a confidential approach in registering and using student education records.
Americans with Disability Act (ADA)
Ensuring the program is not segregate in the learners and provides a conducive environment for those with disabilities to learn is part of remaining in line with the ADA.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
Teaching the students on the HIPAA will ensure its clauses are respected in practice. Ensuring the teachers are well versed with the same also increases the success levels of the program.
Ensuring the program does not violate any copyright laws is essential. The team will focus on ensuring the program is an original development that is not copyrighted by another party. It will also ensure the works of the teachers and the students respects similar laws in maintaining standards.
J. Nursing Accreditation
The nursing accreditation methods aim at improving the quality of material the program presents and monitoring the programs involved in training nurses. Incorporating the nursing accreditation method in the program takes different forms that include the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE). The CCNE serves to identify those programs that promote effective practices in education (Feldman & Alexander, 2011). Incorporating the CCNE in the BSN program will increase its credibility. The program will focus on making their teaching in line with that provided for under the CCNE. It embraces those practices that the CCNE advocates for in order to build confidence in learners and increase their value in the market. Seeking approval by the CCNE would have an impact on its working relationship with the commission. Building a positive working relationship enables the continuous improvement of the program based on changes effected in the CCNE.
The success of the program rests in its ability to meet the set standards and operate within the provisions of the laws and those formed based on the field of nursing. Adhering to these is essential in increasing the success levels of the program. The selection of the modalities and the assessment approaches is also essential. Focusing on the traditional approach to learning and the online modalities increases the effectiveness of the program. Lastly, ensuring the formative and summative assessment approaches are applied in turns will further improve the level of success that the students will register in using the program.
- Armstrong, T. (2009). Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. ASCD.
- Brockhart, M. S. (2010). Formative Assessment Strategies for Every Classroom: An ASCD Action Tool. ASCD.
- Feldman, H. R. & Alexander, R. G. F. (2011). Nursing Leadership: A Concise Encyclopedia. Springer Publishing Company.
- Loughran, J. (2012). What Expert Teachers Do: Enhancing Professional Knowledge for Classroom Practice. Routledge.
- Sharf, R. S. (2015). Theories of Psychotherapy & Counseling: Concepts and Cases. Cengage Learning.
- Zehra, A. (2012). Educational Communities of Inquiry: Theoretical Framework, Research and Practice. IGI Global.