Table of Contents
Summary of Area of Interest
The topic that this research examines is the effects of healthy eating in reducing obesity compared with physical activity. It examines the advantages of healthy eating in comparison with physical exercises in promoting effective management of obesity. The topic of obesity management has been of major interest because many Americans have been unable to manage their health properly, resulting into a high number of people who are affected by the condition (Alharbi et al., 2016). Therefore, this study will provide an insight regarding the most suitable approaches of managing obesity among people who are classified as overweight and those who need to practice health habits that prevent the development of obese conditions. The following five questions have been formulated to enable understanding of the research topic.
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- In obesity, what is the effect of eating healthier compared to an increase in physical activity in reducing obesity in 2020?
- What are the characteristics of a healthy die that reduces occurrence of obesity?
- What is the impact of physical activity in reducing obesity?
- What groups of population need healthy eating as a method of prevention of obesity?
- What timeline can the impacts of healthy eating and physical activity contribute to effective management of obesity among US population?
The selected question and Rationale
The selected question for this study will be:
In obesity, what is the effect of eating healthier compared to an increase in physical activity in reducing obesity in 2020?
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The rationale for the selection of the question is that it identifies the problem (obesity), provides a suggestion for the right solution to the problem (healthier eating habits), provides a comparison with other intervention methods (physical activity) and provides a solution that is targeted by the intervention (a reduction in incidences of obesity).
Variables for the PICOT question
- Population: The target populations are people who are at risk of becoming obese due to inability to develop good eating habits such as those who consume foods that contribute to increased weight. Specifically it focuses on school children and adults who are not exposed to healthy diets.
- Intervention: The intervention that is suggested in this study is the consumption of healthy diet i.e. a diet that contributes less to an increase in weight which minimizes the likelihood of obesity among the target population.
- Comparison: This is an alternative intervention to the main intervention in prevention of obesity. In this study, the comparison will be physical activity. The effectiveness of eating healthier will be compared with physical activity in prevention of obesity among the target population.
- Outcome: This is the expected health condition of the target population upon undergoing an intervention of eating healthier and a comparative approach of physical activity. It is expected that there will be a change in health characteristics such as reduction in weight and a Body Mass Index (BMI) that is closer to that of a healthy person.
- Time: It is expected that the impacts of interventions on reduction of obesity will be experienced after 4 months. It is also expected that after a period of 6 months, there will be a reduction in the incidences of obesity among the target population compared with the rest of the population.
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Keywords (10) in relation to the variables of the PICOT Question and a rationale for selection
- The following 10 Keywords will be used in the search for articles that enables understanding the research topic:
- Obesity: This search term will be used because the focus of this study is to determine the measures in which obesity can be prevented or managed.
- Overweight: This is a term that will be used as an alternative to the term ‘obesity’ during articles search (Ling, Robbins & Wen, 2016).
- Eating Healthier: This is a term that will be used to determine the eating habits that contribute to reduction of obesity.
- Physical Activity: This term will be used to search for articles explaining its effectiveness in prevention of obesity (Honisett et al., 2009).
- Waist Circumference: This is a measure of the level of obesity in an individual. Recovery from obesity will be measured in terms of the ability of a person to have a reduced waist circumference due to a reduction in weight.
- Weight Reduction: This is a search term that will be used to determine whether healthy eating practices have an impact in loss of weight as a measure of preventing obesity.
- Body Mass Index (BMI): This is a measure of the level of healthiness of a person and is measured by dividing height in centimeters by weight in kilograms. Changes in BMI will be used as measures of healthiness of the people participating in the study.
- Nutrition Support: This is a term that will be used as an alternative to ‘eating healthy’ and will examine its impact in contributing to a better health characteristics that are not associated with obesity (Mikkelsen et al., 2014).
- Diet Quality: This is a term which will be used to determine the impacts of diet characteristics on prevention of obesity.
- Physical Exercise: This term will be used for the same purpose as physical activity during the search for articles explaining the research topic (Pace et al., 2013).
- Alharbi, M., Gallagher, R., Kirkness, A., Sibbritt, D., & Tofler, G. (2016). Long-term outcomes from Healthy Eating and Exercise Lifestyle Program for overweight people with heart disease and diabetes. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 15(1), 91-99.
- Honisett, S., Woolcock, S., Porter, C., & Hughes, I. (2009). Developing an award program for children’s settings to support healthy eating and physical activity and reduce the risk of overweight and obesity. BMC Public Health, 9(1), 345.
- Ling, J., Robbins, L. B., & Wen, F. (2016). Interventions to prevent and manage overweight or obesity in preschool children: A systematic review. International journal of nursing studies, 53, 270-289.
- Mikkelsen, M. V., Husby, S., Skov, L. R., & Perez-Cueto, F. J. (2014). A systematic review of types of healthy eating interventions in preschools. Nutrition journal, 13(1), 56.
- Pace, W. D., Lanigan, A. M., Staton, E. W., Graham, D. G., Manning, B. K., Dickinson, L. M.,… & Stewart, E. E. (2013). Effectiveness of 2 methods of promoting physical activity, healthy eating, and emotional well-being with the Americans in Motion—Healthy Interventions approach. The Annals of Family Medicine, 11(4), 371-380.