Organizational Psychology


One of the main purposes of the social science study methods used by I/O psychologists is to allow the researcher to step back from any private feelings or biases to learn a specific matter objectively. To investigate the influence of music at workplace we compare methods of conducting the study and choose the appropriate one(Riggio, n.d.)

The first method is Experimental method which is most usually associated with research carried out in a laboratory, although it can also be used in a real work setting, in such situation it is known as a field experiment. The method is planned to give the examiner a very high degree of control over the study setting. In the experimental technique, the researcher systematically controls levels of one variable, known as the independent variable, and measures its result on another variable, referred to as the dependent variable. The dependent variable is the consequence variable or the actions that are of primary attention to the investigator(Riggio, n.d.)

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To conclude whether the manipulation of an independent variable gives any noteworthy transformation in a dependent variable, following the experimental method researchers compares the outcomes of two clusters of participants. One group, known as the experimental/treatment group, is subjected to the transform in the independent variable. The second one, called the control group, gets no change. Evaluating the dependent variable of the control group permits the investigator to rule out any normal variations that might have arose naturally in deficiency of the treatment(Aron,Coups,& Aron,2010)

Second one is Quasi experiments method here an investigator does not have the control over the condition required to carry out real experiment. As a result, a quasi-experiment is applied, which is a design that follows the experimental method but lacks features such as indiscriminate assignment of contributors to groups and manipulation of the self-governing variable.

Quasi-experiments are common in I/O psychology since of the difficulties in regulating extraneous variables and, often, the unit of examination is groups or organizations, rather than specific people (Aron,Coups,& Aron,2010)

Lastly we have the Correlational method, it looks at the connections between variables as they arise naturally. When the correlational technique is used, in contrast to the experimental method, there is no manipulation of variables by the researcher. A researcher measures two or more variables and then observes their statistical correlation to one another.
The fact that some types of melodies can stimulate parts of our brain that affect opinion and memory is captivating.  There are so many firms that struggle with means to improve worker’s performance. Many people have wondered how integrating music into the work setting may positively influence employee performance. To study the impact of music at work place we need to choose suitable research design(Aron,Coups,& Aron,2010)

When selecting the research method  the type of method selected are determined by  the research situation and the  control that the investigator has over the research venue. For instance, a researcher may decide that he or she will conduct a study of workers’ task performance by observing workers in the actual work setting during normal working hours, in order to make the setting as “natural” as possible(Rogelberg, S. ,2007).
In this study, the independent variable is whether the employees did or did not listen to music during work hours; the dependent variable would be the level of motivation and task performance. It is also conceivable to expand the experimental technique to include a number of different treatment groups for instance, different types of music programs and to relate the efficiency of these numerous treatments with one another and with a control group. Of course, the experimental design is not used only for equating treatment and control groups. Any variable that can be broken into distinct groups or levels can serve as an independent variable in an experimental design. For instance, we might examine music influence among male and female workers (Cozby, P. C., & Bates, S. C,2012).

For a successful experimental technique study, researcher should hold all extraneous variables constant. For instance, observing all study groups, control and treatment groups, using the same methods and same equipment. This is of course much easier to do in a laboratory setting than in an actual work setting. As there may be some motivational variances in the treatment volunteers that might act as a confounding or moderating variable, thus distressing the results. That is, participants in the treatment group might be more energetic and “helpful” than those in the control group, and it would thus be impossible to express whether any variances between the two groups ensued from the treatment or these inherent motivational differences. Many potential extraneous variables can be organized through the random assignment of people to the experimental and control groups. Random assignment guarantees that any motivational variances or other individual features show up in equivalent scopes in both groups(Chmiel, N. ,2017).

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This is the study process. Results of one investigation may arouse subsequent studies in the same area. Scientific research builds on the outcomes of previous studies, adding and improve, and increase our understanding of the behavior in question(Aron,Coups,& Aron,2010)

In I/O Psychology It is very important in conducting any type of psychological research involving human subjects that the researcher, professional or students, adhere to ethical standards. These regulatory principles include: striving to help the persons with whom the psychologist is working and taking care to do no hurt; being honest and precise in the science, teaching, and practice of psychology; and  respect to privacy and confidentiality the human subject must also have informed consent.In this particular study the normal work ethics may be neglected with inclusion of music in work settting(Fisher, 2009).  

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  1. Aron, A., Coups, E., & Aron, E. N. (2010). Statistics for psychology (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. This straightforward text examines basic methods students in the social and behavioral sciences need to analyze data and test hypotheses.
  2. Cozby, P. C., & Bates, S. C. (2012). Methods in behavioral research (11th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill. An excellent and very readable introduction to research methods.
  3. Chmiel, N. (2017). Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology. Wiley.
  4. Fisher, C. B. (2009). Decoding the ethics code: A practical guide for psychologists (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  5. APA site for ethics in conducting research.
  6. Lowman, R. L. (Ed.). (2006). The ethical practice of psychology in organizations (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  7. Riggio, R. Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology.
  8. Rogelberg, S. G. (Ed.). (2007). Encyclopedia of industrial and organizational psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. This two-volume encyclopedia is a good starting place for understanding basic I/O psychology terms and concepts.
  9. Rogelberg, S. G. (Ed.). (2002). Handbook of research methods in industrial and organizational psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell. A very detailed “encyclopedia” of all topics related to methodology in I/O Psychology. A professional-
  10. Zedeck, S. (Ed.). (2011). APA handbook of industrial  and organizational psychology. Washington, DC
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