Person-centered Care



Person-centered care is a collection of undertakings which comprise of both social and medical services being applied together with the intention of planning, advancing, and checking care so that it may be in line with the desires of the patients. This, therefore, makes the individuals, as well as their relatives, participate in the making of decisions concerning health care together with the experts in order to achieve the most suitable results. These practices usually put into consideration the wants of the individuals, standards, family conditions, social situations, and the lifestyle of the patients (Abbott, 2016). Some of the attributes associated with this kind of practice comprise of compassion, respect, patience, and having the perspective similar to that of the patient. 

In this case, we focus on Jacob whose age is 70 years and has dementia which was caused by unhappiness. This disorder has then created a complication of losing his memory, having an undeveloped visual awareness, and communication challenges. Lately, he fell down because of the loss of movement which then damaged his hip. He has two children having a son who dwells overseas and pays him a visit two times in a year and a daughter who dwells in the adjacent town and pays him a visit to times in a week. Therefore, this is his old age stage of life which requires him to have the attention of his family and friends in order to reduce his depression.  Another distinct life course of Jacob is the situation where he lacks the attention of his family and friends in his current condition which would devastate him.   

There exists another scenario where Jacob could be having his children living near his city and the other living overseas, but they both do not pay him a visit. This could, in turn, lead to the deterioration of his condition of being depressed. Jacob becomes more depressed and has a consideration of even committing suicide. This is because no one in his family, as well as friends, even calls him through his phone to know his progress. He could as well be receiving care from the psychiatrist who may be paying him a daily visit. This care may not be enough since he would need compassion from the individuals close to him. Therefore, they may not be as effective in his care compared to involving his family who would reduce his stress levels and facilitate the compliance of the recommendations given by the professionals.    

Concept of person-centered care

Person-centered care in the health institutions is the provision of medical services that are focused on the satisfaction of the patients. Normally, the care providers concentrate on enhancing the experience of the patients. The practitioners often provide some particular services or recommend these services to their patients which are not specified in their undertakings (Brooker, 2015). They are usually extra services that they could do without but they are provided to the patients regardless. Some of them could comprise of the music therapy to the patients in order to reduce their stress levels as well as other services like counseling sessions. The healthcare providers are guided by some ideologies when providing the services which are focused on the people (Brownie, 2013). These ideologies comprise of the aspect of cherishing people, independence, comprehending relationships, the surrounding, and life involvement. 

Most healthcare providers tend to be encountered by numerous challenges while they carry out their normal activities and incorporate the person-centered services. This is because they are required to identify the individual desires of patients which are unique in every one of them. These unique desires are the ones that facilitate the accomplishment of fulfilling their individual desires (Sjögren, 2013). They are normally the enhanced services which are an extra of the ones being provided by the institution to increase their satisfaction. The patients may undergo through some encounters which would have substantial repercussions on their whole lives (Chenoweth, 2014). Therefore, it is the responsibility of the care providers to ensure that they make these individuals have a better experience in the hospital that would make them feel appreciated.

Some of the interventions required in situations of depression comprise of creating optimism in the particular patient, testing of the strengths of the individuals which are then used by the caregiver to inspire the person. Therefore the health practitioners are expected to have the appropriate training which tends to mind the individual situations of their patients. Lack of this training may hence participate in significantly inhibiting the process of providing the appropriate services which are person centered. The challenge of appropriate training is hence another factor that inhibits the provision of this kind of services which have the ability to increase the satisfaction of the patients (Clissett, 2013). 

Importance of a life course understanding

Unwellness is the damage of the usual physical function distressing a section or the organism as a whole. This situation generally influences the ordinary operation of person’s body due to issues like disease, disorder, and infection. Life course is the scrutinizing of a person’s past which could be responsible for the undertakings in the present. These actions comprise of divorce, participating in crime, suicide, and marriage. When one comprehends a person’s distinct past, they are able to determine the kind of intervention they require in order to deal with their situations of distress (Constand, 2014). This is normally with the aim of reducing the chances of depression which could lead to the suicide of the affected individual.    

In this case, Jacob could be having depression due to his divorce which was his life course. He became lonely during his old age which led to dementia due to his depression deteriorating. Therefore, his family and friends were able to comprehend his life course which is the reason that makes them pay him the frequent visits in his home. These visits are supposed to reduce his loneliness and make him feel appreciated and loved hence significantly participating in the treatment of his dementia. Jacob also fell down and damaged his hip which even complicated his psychological condition since his movement is now limited. Therefore, he needed a medical practitioner who would be observing his physical progress as well as his psychological wellbeing. 

Some of the undertakings adopted by most practitioners in order to deal with dementia need them to comprehend the past of their individual. This is the life course of their patient which they should study and be able to determine the kind of intervention they require. However, there exist some challenges in establishing the past of the patients by the practitioners. This is because most patients tend to lack the confidence to disclose the particular information that could be causing their distress (Duberstein, 2014). Therefore, the caregivers are unable to instantly identify the causes of depression and hence tackling it becomes difficult. The most suitable methods to individual depression causes which then leads to dementia could not be provided to the patients. This then makes their conditions deteriorate, and treatment becomes slow.    

When the family of a person together with their friends comprehend the life course of the patient, they are able to accommodate them in the community (Pulvirenti, 2014). This is through accepting his faults and adopting certain actions with the aim of helping overcome their current difficulties. In Jacob’s situation, he has his daughter playing the guitar for him with the intention of reducing his stress conditions. His psychological condition is to some extent treated through listening to the instrument and hence the dementia is also treated in the process. Hence, when the relatives of the patient get to comprehend the life course of one of their members, they would be able to provide the patient with the suitable attention which would significantly help in reducing the effects of their conditions.  

Some people are also not aware that their current conditions could be due to their past. Therefore, they are unable to determine whether their conditions are severe to need professional help. This then leads to these conditions becoming more complicated which in turn causes dementia. The health practitioners are then faced with the problem of making these individuals disclose the information on their pasts since they also tend to be secretive as well. The practitioners without the appropriate training of the way they should handle this kind of patients could make them feel uncomfortable (Eaton, 2015). They then decide not to disclose their information to the practitioners which complicate the provision of the appropriate care for their conditions. Since the explanation of life course could differ with individuals, some individuals may not view it to be having a significant influence on the future situations of people hence they could disregard them which would inhibit the provision of the most suitable care.

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Health and wellbeing interventions

Health interventions are the actions that are carried out by the medical practitioners with the intention of facilitating treatment of their patients. They normally focus on altering the behavior of the patients so as they may maintain their health and avoid deteriorating their current conditions (Edvardsson, 2014). In situations where one intends to deal with the mental state of the patient, they are supposed to focus on the adoption of the universal interventions. This is because they are the ones who participate significantly in preventing psychological illness. This is according to a recent study which found that universal interventions were more successful when they are carried out at the level of the populace. Harmful ways of life, enduring illnesses, as well as social unfairness are to some extent connected to mental suffering. Therefore, the universal encouragement of psychological health has the ability to deal with the community health plans.       

There are certain eating behaviors like consuming meals with excessive fats, excessive consumption of alcohol, and too much cigarette smoking that participate in the development of long-lasting diseases. Therefore, there exist some health interventions which are supposed to alter this kind of behaviors in individuals with the aim of reducing the chances of developing such illnesses. The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial is an example of an undertaking meant to reduce the likelihood of acquiring chronic diseases due to certain conducts (Edvardsson, 2014). They concentrate on the psychosocial involvements following the acquiring of an illness so as to enhance the medication obedience as well as results. Additional interventions are normally created due to the risk exposed to the general public, and they normally calculate the level of subjection to the risk of acquiring the illness by the people.   

A substantial number of individuals could be subjected to a small possibility of acquiring the illness. This leads to the creation of numerous cases of the illness compared to the situation where a small population is subjected to a high possibility of acquiring the illness. This is because this small population would be having the ease to alter their behaviors which could have resulted in increasing their possibility of acquiring the illness making them be able to deal with the situation effectively. Therefore, when the possibility of acquiring the illness is extensively dispersed in the populace of a particular region, minor alterations in the conduct of these individuals would have better results in reducing the possibility of the illness compared to huge alterations in a small populace (Olsson, 2013). 

The healthcare specialists are then able to offer their services to the individuals properly when they comprehend the behaviors of their patients connected to their conditions (Testad, 2014). They hence have the ability to recommend the appropriate actions that would reduce the chances of their patients to acquire the behavior related illnesses. This is seen in the case study where Jacob has a dietician who is responsible for checking his diet so as not to have eating habits that would deteriorate his condition. The other medical undertakings that the physicians are supposed to carry out on the patient would not be ruined since the diets are on the check.

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Potential contribution of service led, inter-disciplinary and user-led approaches

The service led top-down decisions are the undertakings in the medical institutions where the directives and conclusions are given to the junior physicians by the senior physicians or management (Entwistle, 2013). These kind of conclusions are at times advantageous since the senior physicians could be having a better comprehension of particular conditions. This makes them the most appropriate individuals to give directions to the junior physicians who are constantly involved in treating the patients directly. Mistakes in these situations could be minimized as complicated conditions could be understood better and dealt with appropriately. However, this kind of undertaking could be erroneous in that the senior physicians could have lost touch with some conditions due to the constant alteration of particular illnesses. Mistakes could hence likely occur since the senior physicians could have relied on previous solutions which could not be effective in the present (Richards, 2015).    

Interdisciplinary actions are the undertakings adopted following the consultations with other professionals. This is usually with the intention of increasing the effectiveness of particular actions and advancing the results being anticipated (Lusk, 2013). In this case, Jacob has various professionals focusing on his condition. These individuals comprise of the dieticians, the therapist, and a nurse to treat his physical injury. This undertaking is suitable as it increases the scope of the condition being focused on as various experts have distinct and credible knowledge of a condition. Incorporating this knowledge while dealing with an illness makes sure that the patient has credible medication which could be very effective. On the other hand, this kind of undertaking could be disadvantageous in that the provision of differing information from different experts could lead to confusion. The action that would be implemented could then be inappropriate since it could disregard the correct recommendations and opt for the incorrect ones.    

The user-led bottom-up are the actions that are influenced by the patients. This occurs when the patients give their response on the particular undertakings being adopted in a certain hospital (Mezzich, 2016). In these circumstances, the patients could be engaged in making some decisions that are associated with their wellbeing. Therefore, this kind of undertakings is beneficial since they would increase the satisfaction of the patients. This then creates a good perception of the patients towards the hospital, and the reputation of the physicians is enhanced. However, there exist some disadvantages which are connected with the ignorance of the patients. Most patients are usually not knowledgeable on issues concerning medicine, and hence their involvement in medical decisions could be inappropriate. 

Impact of societal constructions for person-centered practice across a life course

The structure of the society has the ability to influence the kind of person-centered care provided to the patients (Joseph-Williams, 2015). This is because the cultural practices normally develop the aspects that are accepted or rejected by the society. For instance, in a society that does not accept divorced individual, the person-centered services could be more intense in the patients such as therapy in order to help them cope with the stigma. In this case, the life course of Jacob is divorce which has resulted in the condition of depression. The society in which he lives in could be having a poor perception on divorcees which could lead to him losing friends and needing the attention of his family. 

Other issues of the society could contribute to the wellbeing of an individual. This is because one may be living in a society where smoking is prevalent, and the individuals do not exercise. Therefore, one is at a higher risk of acquiring some complications which are associated with their way of living. The medical experts at these circumstances are supposed to ensure that they put into consideration the way of life of particular people while providing them with the person-centered services (Whitlatch, 2013). These comprise of recommending some physical exercises, advice to quit the smoking habit and also recommend the appropriate diets they should be adopting.


Therefore, person-centered services normally focus on the individuals being treated so as to increase their level of satisfaction. This then increases the credibility and enhances the reputation of the physicians. The health interventions usually focus on dealing with the behavior of the people which develops their current health conditions (Groves, 2016). The physicians then recommend the appropriate actions that should be implemented through the alteration of behavior so as to ensure that this condition is controlled. Various interventions are adopted to certain patients using the general situation of the public since these interventions are normally effective if the public alters its behavior in general compared to having one individual altering their behavior significantly.      

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Appendix A

Jacob, a 70-year-old man, and a divorcee suffers from dementia as a result of depression. The condition has led to memory loss, communication problems, and poor visual perception. He recently suffered a fall due to lost mobility that resulted to a hip injury. He received a hip replacement and managed to walk around using Zimmer frame.

Jacob is a father of two, a son living abroad who visits twice every year and a daughter living in the neighboring town to visits twice every week alongside their relatives. The visits offer Jacob a social and emotional support. In the home, he has several friends who also check in once in a while. His daughter Ashley plays his favorite instrument the guitar with him. Jacob gets a caregiver who visits him once in a day Jacob had earlier received equipment and support from an occupational therapist and dietician was also involved and recommended Jacob to be put on a liquid diet. The carers have recently managed to get additional care time with approval from social services. The carers are working together with an external home care agency for greater efficiency and also to ensure that Jacob was safe and his needs were met adequately.

Appendix B

There exists another scenario where Jacob could be having his children living near his city and the other living overseas, but they both do not pay him a visit. This could, in turn, lead to the deterioration of his condition of being depressed. Jacob becomes more depressed and has a consideration of even committing suicide. This is because no one in his family, as well as friends, even calls him through his phone to know his progress. He could as well be receiving care from the psychiatrist who may be paying him a daily visit. This care may not be enough since he would need compassion from the individuals close to him. Therefore, they may not be as effective in his care compared to involving his family who would reduce his stress levels and facilitate the compliance of the recommendations given by the professionals.

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