Senior Citizen Challenges With Technology

Subject: Psychology
Type: Profile Essay
Pages: 7
Word count: 1790
Topics: Self Esteem, Data Analysis

Reliability and Validity 

Chaudhuri, Thompson, and Demiris (2014) have stated that the case study, should remain the same no matter the phenomenon that may arise in future when another investigator, conducts the same. A study by Rashidi and Mihailidis (2013) goes contrary to this observation and argue by measuring twice is no possibility that conducting two different studies could yield same results.  In the single case study of senior citizens, specific questions require unique answers from the respondent.  The consistency of information is achieved in this manner. In ensuring reliability of the data as observed, the participant is notes keenly and makes explicit observations.  The correct interpretation is possible to ensure the single case study of the participant observation is accurate. The advantage with officials and Researchers guaranteed reliance in research and use the information to make predictions and interpolations in various settings under the same survey.

The importance of having qualitative research is to ensure that the researcher will be able to make patterns in the words to build a clear conclusion without having to compromise with its dimensionality (Leung, 2015). Just like quantitative research, qualitative research has the intention of answering questions that relate with how, why, where and many others (Chaturvedi, (2016). Qualitative research deals with nonnumeric details such as the human emotions although many people consider it to have undesirable biases (Garakani & Peter, 2016).

In qualitative research, validity of refers to the appropriateness of a tool that has been used to conduct the research (Ograjenšek, & Gal, 2016). Choosing the right methodology has a great influence in achieving the valid results of a study. A conclusion of a study is only as good as the tools that were used to conduct the results. In this study, I will make use of direct interview as the main tool to conduct qualitative research.

The first thing to establish in every research is the credibility. This is an important aspect that will be used to establish trustworthiness of the results that is obtained (Olivia, 2017). In this way I will be able to link the findings in the field with the reality of life. To achieve credibility in this research, I will make use of triangulation and member checking techniques in this qualitative research. Triangulation will ensure that the research findings will be comprehensive and robust to meet the satisfaction of the population (Turnšek, 2015). It will involve using many different sources of data, theories, and methods to validate that information before coming to a conclusion (Keller, 2016). I will also make use of other researchers in the same field to analyze my data and ensure that the information I have obtained resonates with other research or improves on issues that have earlier been raised to ensure conformity (Vidmar & Kerman, 2016)

The criterion allows us to triangulate the methods to provide insights into the study.  Triangulation employs compound data sources in a research the researcher should comprehend in totality in regard to the study (Page, 2014). 

For the second research question (R2), the vital information inquired from the respondents included:

  • Determination of the government’s involvement in reassessing the response and expectations of older citizens to technological changes
  • How stakeholders in the technology industry are conducting the impact assessments of their new products or innovations on the older adults.
  • How the stakeholders in the technology industry are facilitating the adoption of new technology by more elderly citizens.

Data Collection

I will provide leaflets to the selected participants to obtain research details so they could be aware of the study requirement.  They will signal their intent to participate in the study by signing the agreement forms. The data collection will then commenced with the participants providing their ideas in unfettered manner of the general research question (Silveira, Daniel, Casati, & Bruin, 2013). The major factor is the lack of sufficient training and exposure.  Training services focus on the younger generation and moves at a faster-advanced pace.  Senior citizens have difficulties grasping the complexities pertaining to technology.  The researcher will introduce structured interview questions regarding the descriptive questions.  The structured guide will allow me to achieve its objectives.  The data will be recorded and stored in its original form for later retrieval.  

I will take notes and record all the information and incidences that take place while I am at the field.  Having these notes will enable me record extra information as to what constitute meaning from the field, and could help to interpret the data provided by the participants (Jaqt et al, 2016).  The booklets as well acted as the backup in case the recording devices failed to function or could not capture enough information because of memory issues.  The researcher ensured information will be collected provides a wide view of analysis. 


Senior citizens are not up-to-date with the programs relating to technology and computer; this single case study will involve analytical and exploratory research.  The instrumentation used in the study uses qualitative methods to collect data.   

To facilitate proper note taking from the participant, I will ask them to sign the release forms as I will be taking audio tape for the conversations that I will be having with them. The forms must be signed in order for me to meet the requirements for the subject (Sollito, 2017). The forms signed must indicate that the information provided will be confidential, and the participant is participating freely. In addition, the participants need to know that the exercise is on their free will and are welcome to leave anytime they feel like it (Donath et al., 2016). I will explain to them that I do not intent to cause them any harm and they are at liberty to say if they feel any uncertainty. The participants will be told their role in the research and the importance of taking part in such an exercise. I will explain to them that this study has no intention of evaluating the technology technique of the participant, but rather to help understand the role of technology in the life of elderly people today.

Some of the research questions include:

  • What was it like when you first bought your first smartphone?
  • What form of technology did you believe would emerge in 2010 when you were a young adult, teenager, or a child?
  • How much did your first colored desktop computer cost?
  • What is your perception on the possible implications of technology on tomorrow’s generation?
  • What motivates you to join the bandwagon of smartphone users and other technologies that keep on coming up?

According to the study conducted by Silveira, Daniel, Casati, and Bruin (2013) establishes one method never provide and convey the reality of a phenomenon.  Morris et al. (2013) observed that consistency is needed in the study and is only possible via triangulation analyzes various sources of data credibility and validity are assured.  Page (2014) suggests to obtain insights into the information will be collected; will always be important to have divergent data sources.

The single case study of senior citizens and technology advancements, make use of mutually the qualitative studies (Leung, 2015).  The study uses qualitative measures, where the only variable will be the age of senior citizens.  The researcher will observe senior members as they use the technology on a regular basis while conducting interviews with different age groups as they try to adopt digital technology and computer programs.  Findings from survey involve structured interviews will enable the records for an auxiliary analysis supplements the study (Graffigna, Barello, Wiederhold, Bosio, & Riva, 2013).  I will share my data with the participants to ensure that they can confirm that I have the right information.

Essay writing service:
  • Excellent quality
  • 100% Turnitin-safe
  • Affordable prices

Data analysis

According to Cook and Polgar (2014), a research study should agree with the adequacy provided routinely for statistical significance to the researcher.  This study applies the NVivo qualitative research techniques in data analysis.  NVivo is a commonly used computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS) created by QSR International (Wong, 2008).  The company, QSR International, is located in Melbourne, Australia.  QSR International is the largest developer of qualitative research software.  NVivo application allows qualitative survey beyond retrieval, sorting, and coding of data.  Its design also considered integrating qualitative linking with coding, modeling, and shaping.  The main advantage of the NVivo software in qualitative research is unlike other statistical software, and it aids the processes of analysis controlled by researchers.  

According to Lorence and Park (2006), senior citizens often experience several challenges when adjusting to computer programs and digital technology because of their limited computer literacy skills.  Therefore, this research developed several questions to aid in determining the level of senior citizen’s exposure to software and digital technology

Information is required from the 15 participants to help in achieving the research objectives and to answer the research questions (R1 and R2).  For the first research question (R1), some of the relevant information included how technology has influenced the lives of the older citizens, the most valuable technology in the contemporary life, the unnecessary technological innovation, and how a particular technology might have affected their lifestyles were it developed earlier.  

Baker et al., (2016) states that there are various steps involved in the analysis.  Step 1: involves data recording the participants has provided and taking of notes by the researcher.  Step2: finding similarities and differences of the information by grouping. The information provided by the participants has helped to establish the relationship.  Step 3: The familiarizing with the research outcome by the audience through recorded information and notes taken by the researcher.  Step 4: involves identifying meanings of words, phrases used by the participants, and breaking them into simple and easy understanding and interpretation of the study.  To provide meaning to the data a technology expert is used to interpret the data.  Step 5: involves the use of charts and diagrams to identify patterns of the study for correlation and interpretation to be established.  The final step is the generalization of the research outcome to provide for applications of senior citizens use of information technology advancements.

After analysis, the data would be stored in a safe place where only access to information is available to sanctioned human resources for future references (Waycott et al., 2013).


The single case studies bases on how senior citizens often experience several challenges when it comes to technology and computer programs.  The purpose is to establish the acceptance and benefits of the various age groups of senior citizens to the use of advanced technology.  The limitation of this chapter is in regards to research questions, population, research design, study sample, instrumentation, and credibility, transferability, conformability, dependability, and data analysis, codes will also mask the identity of the geographical position of the participants. 

We can write
your paper for you
100% original
24/7 service
50+ subjects

Did you like this sample?
  1. Barker, C., Pistrang, N., & Elliott, R. (2016). Research methods in clinical psychology: An introduction for students and practitioners.
  2. Chaturvedi, S. K. (2016). Network reliability: Measures and evaluation. Hoboken : Wiley-Scrivener
  3. Chaudhuri, S., Thompson, H., & Demiris, G. (2014). Fall detection devices and their use with older adults: a systematic review. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 37(4), 178-196.
  4. Cook, A. M., & Polgar, J. M. (2014).  Assistive technologies: Principles and practice.  Elsevier Health Sciences. 
  5. Donath, L., Faude, O., Lichtenstein, E., Nüesch, C., & Mündermann, A. (2016). Validity and reliability of a portable gait analysis system for measuring spatiotemporal gait characteristics: Comparison to an instrumented treadmill. Konstanz: Bibliothek der Universität Konstanz.
  6. Jagt, S. A. W., Beishuizen, J. J., & Vrije Universiteit (Amsterdam). (2016). Evaluating the quality of inquiries: An approach for self-evaluation of accuracy, reliability and validity in school science inquiries by pre-university students. Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit.
  7. Graffigna, G., Barello, S., Wiederhold, B. K., Bosio, A. C., & Riva, G. (2013). Positive technology as a driver for health engagement. Stud Health Technol Inform, 191, 9-17.
  8. Garakani, T., & Peter, É. (2016). Relationality and legitimacy: Learning to negotiate meaningful research among aboriginal and non-aboriginal researchers. (International review of qualitative research, 4, 446-471.)
  9. Isaacs, D. (September 01, 2016). Qualitative research. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 52, 9.)
  10. Isaacs, D. (January 01, 2016). Qualitative research. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 52, 9, 911-911.
  11. Keller, F. (2016). Pulmonary exacerbation score in cystic fibrosis patients: Reliability and validity testing. Lausanne: s.n..
  12. Lorence, D. P., & Park, H. (2006). New technology and old habits: The role of age as a technology chasm. Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine, 14(2), 91-99.  
  13. Morris, M. E., Adair, B., Miller, K., Ozanne, E., Hansen, R., Pearce, A. J.,  &  Said, C. M. (2013).  Smart-home technologies to assist older people to live well at home. Journal of aging science, 1(1), 1-9.
  14. Ograjenšek, I., & Gal, I. (January 01, 2016). Enhancing statistics education by including qualitative research. International Statistical Review, 84, 165-178.
  15. Turnšek, M. M. (2015). Triangulation of methods of career education. (Innovative issues and approaches in social sciences, 8, 3, 2015.)
  16. Leung, L. (2015). Validity, reliability, and generalizability in qualitative research. Journal of Family Medicine and primary Care.
  17. Olivia. (2017). What is credibility in qualitative research and how do we establish it? Retrieved from Statistics Solutions:
  18. Sollito, M. (2017). Technology for Elderly Enhances Health, Safety. Retrieved from Aging Care:
  19. Page, T. (2014). Touchscreen mobile devices and older adults: a usability study. International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, 3(1), 65-85.
  20. Rashidi, P., & Mihailidis, A. (2013). A survey on ambient-assisted living tools for older adults. IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, 17(3), 579-590.
  21. Silveira, P., van Het Reve, E., Daniel, F., Casati, F., & de Bruin, E. D. (2013). Motivating and assisting physical exercise in independently living older adults: a pilot study. International journal of medical informatics, 82(5), 325-334.
  22. Vidmar, M., & Kerman, K. (January 01, 2016). The development of teacher’s Relational competence scale: Structural validity and reliability. Šolsko Polje, 27, 41-62.
  23. Waycott, J., Vetere, F., Pedell, S., Kulik, L., Ozanne, E., Gruner, A., & Downs, J. (2013, April). Older adults as digital content producers. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 39-48). ACM.
  24. Wong, L. P. (2008). Data analysis in qualitative research: A brief guide to using Nvivo. Malaysian Family Physician, 3(1).
Related topics
More samples
Related Essays