Table of Contents
Border and coastal security programs are increasingly being used by several nations to safeguard and protect their border and coastal areas from external risks and threats. These programs provide reliable positioning, navigation and timely services to law enforcement agencies and other government agencies on a continuous basis in all day and night. Programs such as enhancement and improvement of intra-agency cooperation, development and establishment of comprehensive remote and border area surveillance, development and implementation of border and coastal community policing initiatives, and establishment of border and coastal cooperation centers as well as defining parameters for cross-border operational engagement play a significant role in map-making, land surveying, tracking, surveillance, identifying and reporting nation’s risks and threats. This paper is to make use of border and coastal security programs for US. The objective of this paper is to help border and coastal patrol personnel to assess, identify, and safeguard the nation from external threats by using effective and efficient programs in the right manner.
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Our borders and coastal areas have been transformed from the static systems on the map to a dimension for shared process of decision making and real time collaboration that helps to empower government agencies and industries to work in partnership in order to create a more secure, safe, standardized and cost effective parameters. Border and coastal security and management are a wide term that comprises a vast range of federal security, economic, social, and political function. From the utilization of world customs organization regulation to build border and coastal security abilities to the establishment of integrated border and coastal security parameters and constructs and the integrated border and coastal security between countries who collectively collaborate to increase protection and safeguarding beyond their own borders and coastal areas, migration, border and coastal management has been addressed in differently around the globe. An increased focus on securing the border and coastal areas of a country is essential and the task falls on security organs. However, countries such as the US face varied challenges associated with border control and coastal security. It forms avenues for illegal immigrants, unlawful imports, and exports and threats of terrorism. Non-Mexicans are the usual suspects when considering the US borders and coastal security. They have been caught severally in history trying to cross the borders illegally. The US detention facility, justice system, and border surveillance have inefficiencies which lead to a growing number of illegal immigrants and penetration of terrorists. Over time, borders have been crossed and perpetrators caught and released. The courts pressed charges on a couple of them but less than 75% showed up to answer the charges.
Standardized border and coastal security programs is mainly a federal responsibility and it involves the processes of managing legal travel or flow and prevention of illegal entry of goods and people into the US. Herein, this study aims to analyze and assess the best ways of safeguarding America’s border and coastal areas, thereby protecting the general public from dangerous materials and people while enhancing and improving on the global economic competitiveness through legitimate or legalized trade and travel.
- The main goal of this study is to assess and investigate America’s border and coastal programs
- Examine the role of several government agencies in enhancing border and coastal security
- Offer recommendation to help in improving border and coastal security in order to attain global economic competitiveness by using legitimate and legalized trade and travels
According to whitehouse.gov (2005), 160,000 non-Mexicans were caught crossing the US borders. Out of which only 30,000 were sent back to their homes. The practice has been an iterative catch and release and deemed a practice ingrained in the government policy. The study on the coastal security and border control seeks to end the acts by using the border patrol and increasing the detention facilities bed capacity.
Whitehouse.gov (2005) was determined to use the expedited removal approach that streamlines the process. It involves using the border patrol officials and a special unit to detail the non-Mexicans and take them back. In addition, President Trump sanctioned the building of the US-Mexico border which in its architecture deploys the use of smart technology. In this fete, radar, long range cameras and CCTV, motion sensors are used at the bordercrossing (“Border Security Overview”, 2014).
The border control has been enhanced with technology to enable themto have a broader reach that brings about effectiveness. The use of overhead surveillance, unmanned drones, infrared cameras, sonar and radar associated equipment, foster service delivery. The chances to thus deal with coastal and border security are henceforth enhanced. As a positive consequence from this deployment, drug barons have been napped, terrorists caught and others deterred.
To ensure the two countries work together in the quest towards a border working group, the technology and customs procedure working group and the enforcement working group were formed to fast-track the initiatives. They have functions aligned to its enactment which include extending and harmonizing the hours used in serving and fostering a coordinated trade environment. In addition, they served as an oversight to the implementation of the advanced passenger information system. It helps to acquire data on arriving and departing visitors. While monitoring borders, monitoring the rails within the country borders are important approaches too.
US National Guard has state obligations and government obligations in shielding the outskirts from fear-based oppressor states. Once the United States National Guard has no obligations appointed by the government, United States National Guard ensures the individual units specifically regions and states. Each state has forces of utilizing individual National Guard Forces under the cost of the state as characterized by the state’s statutes and constitution.
The taskforce was tasked with the installation of gamma-ray machines. In so doing, core data is used in the transactions that occur at the borders within the electronic platform. To heighten the range in a safer border and secure coat line, a research department on newer technologies was setup to deliberate on the sophistication of equipment for the future and help in monitoring cases of fraudulent trade behavior. It involves ensuring the goods that pass through the borders are safe and meet standards as set out by standards bureau. In addition to goods, other fraudulent actions like money laundering, drug trafficking, and outlawed slave trades are easily nabbed (“Fusion Centres and Intelligence Sharing”, n.d.).
The run-up to the US general election in 2016 witnessed the Republican launch a campaign based on border security. While the fence build is only two and a half feet high, it was argued that people easily passed through.
Civil wars and political tensions in most countries lead to an influx of refugees. From statistics, most displaced people or the ones seeking exiles have the US as the first destination on their list. Having legit reasons and in the interest of humanity, adopting them through a well elaborate procedure should be implemented. Such cases put pressure on resources and services delivery. It is the function of the border patrol to keep such data hence ensures that necessary preparations are made.
Ports and the coastal lines are used as entry points for goods into many nations and exit point for many goods. For that reason, having a stable, well-managed border and the coastal program will enhance duty imposition and tax implementation. Such are the sources of funding too much government. Through adequate resources and facilities at the ports, the government agencies in charge of fee collection do a good job. They are able to provide accurate information, to enable resource planning and policy implementation (Richelson, 2005).
In 2003 the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) was established for immigration monitors and Border Patrol, Customs Service and Department of Agriculture. Jurisdictional nature of CBP is associated with Federal Law implementation and regular citizen office. The motivation behind CBP is identified with encouraging and controlling universal exchange, authorizing the directions of the United States, gathering import obligations, upholding directions on the exchange, implementing controls on movement and implementing directions in traditions.
CBP is the biggest body in the United States with base camp situated in Washington D.C. CBP has numerous parts, yet the main role of the body is appended to anticipating activities of fear mongers and in deflecting psychological militant weapons from entering to the dirt of the United States. Illicit migrants are likewise secured by CBP, especially to people with a notoriety of criminal exercises, people encouraging unlawful medications, people encouraging booty items and shielding the financial and farming interests from hazardous sicknesses and irritations that may enter the United States through the outskirts. CBP has likewise been compelling in shielding the organizations from acts robberies on protected innovation (“Smart Borders Increasing security without sacrificing mobility”, n.d.).
Confinements of CBP are associated with the past reactions that the radiation recognitions inside the crisis situated at port distinguish kitty litter and have the ability to bypass weapons that are risky. Reviews have shown that the outskirts in the United States are extremely permeable to a degree that congressional specialists have overseen bypassing the security operators while conveying atomic materials. In a few events, CBP has been evaluated as feeble and that the administration isn’t up to the undertaking. CBP has been blamed for giving perilous fares a chance to go through the framework undetected (“Border Security Overview”, 2014).
The oceans and seas are shared resources among nations. In cases where the partners have a team working in sync on observing the coastlines, ensuring security into and out of a nation, disputes are left at bay hence a harmonious coexistence. Based on “National Strategy for Global Supply Chain Security”, (n.d.), country security is an umbrella in the United States supporting the national endeavors of turning away fear monger assaults. A similar body limits weakness of United States from conceivable demonstrations of psychological warfare and helpsto turn away nearby and global assaults. Country security was introduced after the redesign of different government organizations that occurred in 2003. Joined States Department of Homeland Security dealing with border security came to impact after the psychological militant assaults that occurred on September eleventh, 2001. Country Defense shields the United States from hostilities and dangers on the household populace, United States an area, foundation, and power.
This study utilizes qualitative methodology to try and assess multi-layered measures or approaches to the border and coastal security applied by the US, one that is guided by an advancing appreciation of dynamic risks. By applying multiple and mutually reinforcing border and coastal security tools and programs, the researcher is in a better position of identifying and intercepting external threats reduce vulnerabilities within the US border and coastal infrastructure and respond and recover from external attacks and incidents that might occur.
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Analysis and Finding
The multi-layer tools and risk-based security programs extend beyond the borders and domestic coastal. Security measures and approaches take place at the different location, times and by different government agencies based on their capabilities, jurisdiction, and responsibilities to improve and enhance border and coastal security. Based on the literature review, America’s border and coastal security can be analyzed by understanding the risks by assessing and defending against the external threats such as diversity nuclear and radiological risks and other essential risks that might negatively impact America’s border and coastal system. Risk management approaches aims to promote secure, safe, efficient and resilient border and coastal system by continuing to identify and understand the risks within all the elements of the system as a whole. However, the evolving and dynamic nature of border and coastal threats and vulnerabilities makes the process of risk management challenging tasks but government agencies remain committed to protecting the nation by preventing risks such as terrorist exploitation of its border and coastal system or its components (Haddal, 2010).
The use of global nuclear detection architecture, advanced telecommunications, and skilled personnel with the help of information exchange, protocols and programs that serve to detect, identify, analyze and report border and coast risks that are out of control. specifically, law enforcers coordinates or partner with other interagency partners and advanced programs to develop technical detection capabilities, measure the performance of detector system, ensure effective measures of response to detection alarms and perform transformational analysis and development of improved detection technologies that addresses border and coastal risks including nuclear and radiological terrorisms, drug and human smuggling and illegal immigrants. In addition, the nation and other partners consistently research, review, and update the assessment of the border and coastal risks including containerized maritime cargo analysis that would not only reduce the risks associated with nuclear and radiology terrorism but protect America’s border and coastal system(“cross-border transactions on the fast track”, 2009).
Improved information and targeting through the collection of information about vessels, cargo and individuals of interest early by using advanced targeting approaches to assess and identify the risk and come up with knowledge-base about individuals, companies, cargo and conveyances at the border and coastal system can be attained by orientation and allowing the border and coastal patrol to apply advanced information system, integration and quick and rapid responses in an effective and efficient manner. The measurable objective of this approach is to prevent the entry of terrorists and weapons into the nation through the application of improved and focused intelligent-based operations and operational, planning, integration, and execution with government agencies partners; manage border and coastal risks by introduction and expansion of improved and advanced techniques, tactics and procedures including the detection of illegal entries into the country such as increased mobile response capabilities, change detection techniques and expanded use of skilled personnel. The expansion of situational awareness and use of comprehensive and integrated interagency approach as well as increasing community engagement by participating in community-based programs and advocating for the public to help in U.S border and coastal patrols can help in addressing and preventing the risks associated with border and coastal system (“CTPAT: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism | U.S. Customs and Border Protection”, n.d.).
Early intervention through partnership or collaboration which involves the expansion of enforcement efforts in order to point risks at America’s border and coastal system through collaboration with other government agencies, foreign governments, and other stakeholders. The law enforcement department collaborates with interagency to establish an effective and efficient partnership with international bodies to greatly improve and enhance the collection of advanced information and risk targeting efforts at the border and coastal system. The partnership ensures the security of the border and coastal system by understanding, identifying and inspecting cargo, containers, vessels, and individuals that possess security risk to the nation in advance. The nation has developed risk-based targeting system and provides training and guidelines of identifying risks by using advanced technologies and work side by side with international nations in order to allow the exchange of the best and efficient practices, information and collaboration on the high-risk border and coastal system, which further secures global borders and coastal system (“U.S. Customs and Border Protection | U.S. Embassy in Colombia”, n.d.).
Moreover, domestic security regime can be attained by the maintenance of robust inspections strategies including the technology, personnel, and access to control protocols at the border and coastal ports in order to enforce America’s trade, immigration, safety, health and security laws. finally, the nation should promote its preparedness by using sustainable grant programs including port security grant programs as part of the border and coastal security comprehensive programs to strengthen and improve security and resilience of US through systematic preparedness for any form of threats that have the greatest risks to the security of the country including actions of terrorism, pandemics, cyber incidents and natural disasters. In addition to the application of technology and personal, the nation has made strides in strength and improving detection equipment capabilities in border and coastal system. These programs help law enforcers to inspect illicit substances, terrorist and their weapons, containers, and cargo for nuclear and radiological materials. The border and coastal guard based defense mechanism against threats begins far from the US borders and coastal shores and includes the inspection of risks and deployable specialized forces with global reach. This system is a unique approach that provides unparalleled access to border and coastal infrastructure and potential threats. The border and coastal patrols conduct daily inspections at this system to ensure that people comply with border and maritime law and safety standards applicable to the United States of America law and regulation and control process for access to the US border and coastal ports.
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Conclusion and Recommendation
Border and coastal security is a challenging and dynamic system that requires effective strategic efforts coordinated across all the government agencies that reach far into global dimension by development and employment of the best possible information and intelligence system that is critical in assessing and managing risks. the border and coastal patrol system should make significant steps in securing America’s borders and coastal ports by using skill and trained personnel, advanced technologies and infrastructure such as the building of US-Mexico wall. This strategy enhances America’s borders and the coastal system is more secures. As the threats experienced at this system evolve, the nation’s capabilities to meet and address these threes must as well continue to adapt. The nation should also use integrated mission analysis which applies comprehensive and systematic techniques to track, assess, identify and forecast consequences, vulnerabilities and potential threats (Nayak, n.d.).
The integrated mission analysis supports border and coastal patrol risk-based measures for security agencies to integrate operations and threat assessment. The system harnesses the treats by performing operation, statistics, risks or threat indicators and warnings which will, in turn, be used in estimating the risks. The outcome from the system will help security agencies to determine operational gaps and critical threats, risks, and vulnerabilities. As a result, the nation will have both the data for the threats and analysis to the effectivetrack, identity, assess and forecast border and coastal risks. The integrated mission analysis helps the nations in managing and preventing the identified risks by allowing law enforcers to make better and timely decisions that sustain current capabilities, implement solutions, commit mobile response capabilities, re-allocate resources, develop new capabilities, harness external resources, deploy the urgent solution and divest from capabilities (Securing the Border, 2015).
Given the dynamic nature of cross-border and coastal threats, the security agencies must ensure that it is mobile in responding to the changing threats. Herein, the mobile response capabilities give border and coastal patrol flexibility to deploy their capabilities to the highest risk or threat prone areas of the border and coast. They also deploy scalable capabilities to areas prior to becoming highly risky in order to maintain the highest level of security in border and coastal areas. This mobile response capability is built on situational awareness. In addition, border and coastal patrol personnel should use technology to gain situational awareness in order to detect, identify, assess, monitor and respond to a risk or threat at the border and coastal system. Without the application of technology, the border and coastal patrol cannot function effective and efficient manners. Some of the technologies that can be used include biometrics, mobile surveillance system, mobile video surveillance system remote video surveillance system, and vehicle and cargo inspection system among others (“U.S. Customs and Border Protection | U.S. Embassy in Colombia”, n.d.).
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In conclusion, the main objectives of the border and coastal security programs is to protect the nation’s border and coastal system by making sure that America is secure from external threats through the carrying out of secure and safe risk or threat assessment and analysis. By working with federal partners and domestic as well as international stakeholders, the border and coastal security programs help to safeguard and protect the country’s economic strengths and competitiveness at the global level. Thus, managing and preventing border and coastal risks are entailed to the creation of framework or programs that apply layered strategy to assess identify and report threats. These efforts also need interagency and law enforcers to examine, identify and address potential vulnerabilities.
- Border Security Overview. (2014). Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/border-security-overview
- Haddal, C. (2010). Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol. Retrieved from https://fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL32562.pdf
- Cross-border transactions on the fast track. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.wcoomd.org/-/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/facilitation/instruments-and-tools/tools/data-model/dm_technicalbrochure_en.pdf
- CTPAT: Customs-Trade Partnership against Terrorism | U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Retrieved from https://www.cbp.gov/border-security/ports-entry/cargo-security/ctpat
- Fusion Centers and Intelligence Sharing. Retrieved from https://it.ojp.gov/initiatives/fusion-centers
- National Strategy for Global Supply Chain Security. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/national-strategy-global-supply-chain-security
- Nayak, S. ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING TO INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT. Retrieved from http://swideg-geography.blogspot.com/2018/03/role-of-remote-sensing-to-integrated.html
- Richelson, J. (2005). The National Security Agency Declassified. Retrieved from http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB24/index.htm
- Securing the Border. (2015). Understanding Threats and Strategies for the Northern Border: Hearing Before the S. Comm. on Homeland Security & Governmental Affairs, 114th Cong.
- Smart Borders Increasing security without sacrificing mobility. Retrieved from https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/global/Documents/Public-Sector/dttl-ps-GMBM-Border-Point-Booklet.pdf
- U.S. Customs and Border Protection | U.S. Embassy in Colombia. Retrieved from https://co.usembassy.gov/embassy/bogota/sections-offices/us-customs-border-protection/