Table of Contents
Question 1: Steganography and Stenographic Method
Steganography is the science and art of communication by hiding information to enhance security by computer experts (Dunbar, 2002). Information is represented in a coded manner to prevent sensitive or highly classified information from falling into wrong hands. Another aim is to avoid interception of the information before it reaches the actual intended destination. The information is encrypted and sent through a secure medium. At the receiving end, the other communicating party is able to access and decrypt the information using a secret key (Marcella & Menendez, 2007). Various stenographic techniques are applied in the current digital world. Some of the methods include concealing information in text, network packets, audio and images. Hiding of data in text is extensively discussed in this paper, as a method of steganography.
Hiding of data in text is one of the ways of protecting information from falling into wrong hands or unintended destination. Semantic, line-shift coding and word shift coding and feature coding methods can achieve application of steganography in concealing contents of text files (Michaud, 2003). The last three methods of hiding data in text involve altering the general outward appearance of the file. The aspects of the file to be changed include spaces between lines, words or letters. Semantic methods, also known as syntactic alters the clarity of the choice of words and how they are expressed with little or no change in the targeted meaning of the information. The robustness is important since the receiver of the information should interpret the file as intended by the sender.
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Steganography and its various techniques is a fast rising method of protecting classified information. The nature of the encrypted information, the effectiveness and strength of the method determines the technique applied. The selected technique should be robust, completely prevent unauthorized access and changes of information and convey the intended message at the receiving end of the channel.
Question 2: Fire Sprinkler Systems
There are four major types of sprinkler systems that are used during fire suppression. The systems use the readily available media of water to discharge onto flames through complex piping systems. The systems include: the wet systems, pre-action systems, deluge systems and the dry systems.
In the wet system, a government agency or municipal can supply the water in abundant supply to make it reliable and available at every moment. In this case, the water is pressurized at higher atmospheres but within the limits of the recommendations that conform to the installation standards (Janus Fire Systems, 2012). Therefore, in case of occurrence of fire, a sensitive device will detect the higher temperatures and allow automatic flow of the water within a specified area. Note that the flow of water will stimulate an alarm response that is programmed to indicate that the device is working, hence a sign of danger.
The pre-action system, involves the use of hydraulic machines to or electric devices to detect the fire outbreak. In case of fire, the detector goes off to raise an alarm concerning the state of emergency (Fireline, 2014). This system is supervised by use of air pressure and in case of low air pressure; a smoke will be produced to indicate the presence of fire. However, the system is programmed to prevent the sprouting of water in case the device is faulty, thereby producing a false alarm response (Janus Fire Systems, 2012).The deluge system is complex, and consists of a sprinkler head, automatic sprinkler control valve and a piping system that is usually fixed. Fire will activate the deluge valve to transmit pressurized water to the nozzles, hence extinguishing the hazard.
The dry pipe sprinkler system contains a piping system that is filled with nitrogen (Janus Fire Systems, 2012). The design of this system is programmed so that it remains dry unless there is a source of heat that stimulates the system. Hence, the air pressure within the system will tend to escape in case the heat activates it, thus raising an alarm. Finally, the method is the best since it respond effectively to flammable liquids. Additionally, it is the most preferred if the fire is over a wider area or in a whole estate.
- Janus Fire Systems .(2012). Water Based Suppression Systems. Web. 11 June 11, 2017. Retrieved from: http://www.janusfiresystems.com/products/water-systems/
- Fireline (2014). 4 Types of Fire Sprinkler Systems. Blog. 11 June 2017. Retrieved from: http://www.fireline.com/blog/4-types-fire-sprinkler-systems/
- Dunbar Bret. (2002). Stenographic Techniques and their use in an Open-Systems Environment, SANS Institute
- Marcella A. & Menendez Doug. (2007). Cyber Forensics: A Field Manual for Collecting, Examining, and Preserving Evidence of Computer Crimes, (2nd ed.), CRC Press