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Identity politics have evolved through a series of events in the history of human race. Major controversies have been experienced in history, as people tried to impose changes in the concept, the identity in politics. It is through those movements that human rights, and many other rights that we today enjoy, came into being. This paper, examines the historical factors in U.S that led to emergency of civil rights movements, political actions used by the civil rights movements, how the government engaged the civil rights movements against their political actions, and the gains or transformation that resulted from the political actions battles. The paper, is a case study based analysis, on the writings of Sanchez.
Historical Factors Prior to the Emergence of the Civil Rights Movement in U.S
Some of the factors prior to emergency of civil rights movements in U.S, includes social and economic struggles that led to divisive political takes (Goodwin et al., 2009). It is upon these struggles that people sort to unite on the basis of common social and economic characteristics. In the long run, these social and economic groupings, led to strong movements that sort to have political identity in order to reserve equality in the community. This narrative, explain the core foundation for civil rights movements. The hegemonic discourse in identity politics, have served to revolutionize people participation in active politics of the day, which bore civil rights movement in history.
Some of the key areas of disparity in U.S, comprise of disparity in provision of education opportunities, and job opportunities. In fact, women were not allowed to participate in politics. It is during such times, where women started a movement seeking equality in political participation. As regards jobs and education, the Black Americans were greatly segregated, and this course created the basis for one of the greatest social movements in the history of U.S.
Tools by Sánchez That Were Political Action Activities Used By Civil Rights Movement
Structural social transformation, is one of the tools used by the civil rights movements as a political action as proposed by the Sanchez. In this case, the social structural transformation entailed a lot of struggle, confrontation in a bid to gain a political identity in the U.S. it was through these struggles, that the civil rights movements gained political acceptance, recognition and influence in a wider societal sphere.
The civil rights movements created political agency. The political agencies of civil rights movements, were used to explore the wider scope of the society in politics (Jackson, 2013). The civil rights movements were crucial channels through which the civil rights movements were able to strategically influence political policies and decisions, including the constitution. The political agency, was used as the channels through which the civil rights movement could be heard by the legislative arm of the government, since they represented their interests in the policy formulation and the molding of the constitution through amendments. Civil rights movements agencies, acted
Ways that the state/government engaged the political action activities
The civil rights movements in U.S were closely monitored by the government. To counter some moves by the civil rights movements, the U.S government in some instances used the judicial system to rule against the position of the civil right movements organizations. The courts, was the ultimate decision, where the civil rights movements could not get to a point of agreement with the government (Berger, 2009). Upon address by the court, a more balanced perspective was taken, however in most instances the government worn. Lawsuits, could in most instances be launched by the civil rights movements to push the government into their demands.
In the course of demanding for inclusivity and equality, the civil rights movements went on riots, and demonstrations. To counter these activities, the government was compelled to flush them out of the streets. The police could push the demonstrators off the streets where they were believed to bring interruption in the day to day running of the businesses. The police, were used as the major strategy to frustrate the civil right movement’s operations in U.S. In fact, some of the civil rights movement leaders could be shot, while others were arrested and imprisoned for conducting riots in various instances.
Gains or transformation that resulted from the political actions battles
The civil rights movements on the political actions resulted to a lot of transformation on the national social, economic and political spheres. Generally, the political actions led to social, economic and political equality. For example, women were allowed to participate in politics. The civil and racial discrimination was ended as results of the works of the civil rights movement in U.S. some of the other segregations that came to an end, is the employment discrimination which was heavily felt among the Black Americans. The rights to vote were awarded to people of all races, gender and religion which could not be exercised before the works of civil rights movements were executed in America.
The works of civil rights movements also contributed to equal rights legislation. For example, slavery was abolished and all the citizens were awarded their rights that ascertained them of their dignity and prosperous in life. Slavery was considered inhumane and that no one was allowed to place others under forced labor. This went along with abolition of human trafficking in U.S. These results, assured the human race if respect for one another, and restored the lost glory especially on the minor races. The American-antislavery society, played a crucial role in this achievement (Schneider, 2010). The voting rights of 1965 was awarded after a long political battles of the civil rights movements. In relation to education system, the judiciary allowed for the existence of integrated schools, since there before, the schools were segregated for the whites, and those for the whites, especially at Brown. In addition, the interracial marriage was allowed, leading to marriages between the whites and the Black Americans (Nielsen et al., 2010). The congress, also passed a number of legislation that allowed for social, economic and political inclusivity in America. This included the equal housing Act, which eliminated the neighborhood segregation in U.S.
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The war for political identity in U.S, took many years. The civil rights movements were fueled by social, economic and political injustices were eminent in the country. Some of the major such injustices included education, slavery, social segregation, and employment discrimination. Judiciary and the police force could be used to counter the political actions of the civil movements in U.S. some of the fruits of civil rights movements in U.S, includes the abolition of slavery, and equal rights legislation. Also, employment discrimination, and participation of women in politics were also part of the achievements realized.
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- Jackson, T. F. (2013). From civil rights to human rights: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the struggle for economic justice. University of Pennsylvania Press.
- Nielsen, L. B., Nelson, R. L., & Lancaster, R. (2010). Individual justice or collective legal mobilization? Employment discrimination litigation in the post-civil rights United States. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 7(2), 175-201.
- Schneider, E. M. (2010). The Changing Shape of Federal Civil Pretrial Practice: The Disparate Impact on Civil Rights and Employment Discrimination Cases. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 158(2), 517-570.