What is management? Is it an Art or a Science?

Subject: Business
Type: Synthesis Essay
Pages: 5
Word count: 1425
Topics: Management, Entrepreneurship, Leadership

Management entails the overall administration of the organization. It involves the effective and efficient use of available resources to achieve the goals, mission, and vision of the organization. Management is applicable in various categories of organizations. These are business organizations, government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and global bodies. Management is used to achieve the profitability of business organizations. For example, Apple Inc. is a business organization that generates billions of dollars in global revenues every year. The government agencies that require effective management to achieve goals include the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Global bodies that operate based on proper utilization of resources entails the United Nations (UN) and the World Bank. Most NGOs have the goal of improving the natural and social environment. For instance, the Médecins Sans Frontières is an NGO that provides emergency or specialized medical assistance to vulnerable members of the American and global society. Management involves the process of developing the strategy to achieve the goals, mission, and vision of the organization. The efforts, competencies, and capabilities of the staff (paid and volunteers) are initiated to achieve targets through the use of appropriate resources. The resources include technology, human, financial, and natural requirements (Anderson et al., 2015). The paper illustrates that management is a process that involves both scientific principles and artistic concepts.  

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The Management Process 

Management is a theoretical field of study and also a practice in the organizational environment. The institutions of higher learning offer various management courses. The courses can either be generalized or specialized. The generalized studies are applicable in all sectors of the society. Bachelor of Science in Management or Bachelor of Arts in Management provides good examples of the generalized management courses. The students pursuing these courses will secure employment in any organization. Their responsibilities will involve the general administration of the available organization resources (Grohar-Murray, DiCroce, and Langan, 2016). The specialized management courses focus on specific knowledge areas. For example, Financial Management is a field of study that enables the learners to understand the operations of the financial sector of the economy or the financial department of the organizations. Human Resource Management is another specialized management discipline that informs the students about the strategies of effective and efficient management of the workforce of the nation or the organization. In summary, the management studies equip the learners with the competencies that are required for the effective and efficient management of resources to achieve the desired outcome (Donate and de Pablo, 2015).   

Management has five important basic functions. The first function is planning. It entails setting goals that should be achieved in future. A company can have the goal of doubling the sales revenue in the next financial year. The second function is organizing. It is important to ensure that the company has sufficient resources to achieve the desired goals (Nahavandi, 2016). Employees should be available to work in teams to achieve the goals. Likewise, finances should be available to purchase various requirements and also to pay the remuneration of the workers. Effective technological resources should be adopted to ensure that the services or products of the company are of high-quality standards. The third function is coordinating. This involves the development of a structure that ensures proper achievement of the desired targets. For instance, there should be a clear reporting relationship that shows the level of authority and decision-making process in the organization (Meisiek and Barry, 2014). The employees work in teams that are headed by a supervisor. The supervisor is responsible for setting work targets and providing the necessary resources that are required to perform the work activities. The fourth function is known as commanding. It is also referred to as leading. This entails the provision of the overall direction of the organization. Leading involves inspiring employees to achieve the goals and mission of the organization. The leading process also makes the employees aware of the desired future or vision of the organization. Directing is important in the development of strategies for achieving the goals and in the motivation of the organization staff. The fifth function is controlling. This involves the monitoring or evaluation of the performance of the organization against the set targets. An effective organization is on that achieves or exceeds the set goals (Colbert, Barrick, and Bradley, 2014).   

An organization has important levels of management. The top management is responsible for the achievement of the mission and vision of the organization. The top management is also responsible for developing the strategic plans for achieving the long-term goals (Van, 2014). The top management comprises the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), and the Deputy CEO. The middle level management comprises the Head of Departments, and the Branch Managers. These managers perform specialized roles that are aligned with the mission and vision of the company. For example, the Financial Manager is in charge of the financial department. He or she ensures that the financial goals and systems assist the organization to achieve its mission and vision. The middle level management is responsible for the supervision of the non-management staff. The supervisors ensure that the employees work towards achieving the set goals and objectives (Johnston and Marshall, 2016).

Management as Art and Science   

Management is a science because it is enhanced through knowledge. Organizations have research programs that are used to identify new knowledge or ideas that are important in improving the productivity of the organization. For example, many types of research have been conducted on the effect of technological innovation in improving the productivity of the organization. Managers use technology to generate high-quality products and services. Management is a science because it predicts the future performance of the organization (Renz, 2016). CEOs and Financial Managers use various financial forecasting techniques and models to predict the future sales revenues. Management applies scientific principles by measuring performance. The performance of the employees is measured through the annual performance appraisal process (Rice, 2013). The financial performance of the company is measured every year using the financial statements of the trading account, the profit and loss account, and the balance sheet. Quality controls are used to ensure that the satisfaction levels of the customers are enhanced. Management defines and, therefore, it is a science. It defines or illustrates the workforce required, for instance, the total number of staff required to perform a task. It also illustrates the required finances through the budget-making process. Management indicates the quality standards required by customers. The products and services offered by the organization should be of the correct standards to meet the expectation of the clients (Bolman and Deal, 2017).  

Artistic capabilities are necessary in management. The competency of managers improves through practice. This is the reason why the people who qualify for management positions have work or professional experience of several years. Potential managers are trained, coached, and mentored to improve the practice knowledge of management. Management requires effective human relations abilities (Mihalache et al., 2014). This is because the managers are required to motivate and inspire the employees to work effectively or efficiently. In some cases, management involves the use of guesses. An example is when a manager tries to understand the factors that cause poor performance of the staff. These factors may include low motivation level, poor remuneration, drug or alcohol abuse, or conflicts at the workplace (Goetsch and Davis, 2014). Management is an art because it describes various organization phenomena. The level of customer satisfaction and the quality of stakeholder involvement in the decision making process are scenarios that are effectively described by the organization managers. Managers are responsible for expressing various work issues. Expression in organization is mostly used when recognizing the efforts of important organization stakeholders. Managers motivate employees by recognizing the efforts that they make in the organization (Northouse, 2015). Expression of the satisfaction with the staff performance is an important leadership activity that enhances social cohesion in the work environment. The art aspects cannot be measured in definite terms. However, they are important in improving the motivation and work satisfaction level of employees, and also the level of customer satisfaction (Giacalone and Rosenfeld, 2013).   

The debate on whether management is an art of science is important. The paper supports the view that the management process is both an art and a science. This is because it has the characteristics of both art and science. The professionals who study and practice management, managers, should use the scientific principles and the artistic capabilities to achieve the goals, mission, and vision of the organization. 

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