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The universe consists of elements that exist in form from small atoms to the largest galaxy. The formation of the universe is traced back to 13.7 billion years ago. The process occurred through concept explained in big bang theory. Since then, the universe has been observed to be expanding from time to time. Furthermore, this expansion has been shown to be infinite in its scope. However, the rates of expansion are slowing due to effects of gravity. The research continues to unveil the condition of remote galaxies. Cosmic forces have been considered to contribute to expansion of the universe. It is through cosmology that the astronomers have been able to discover different changes that are taking place in the universe. Recent reports show that the universes are expanding at significant rates. The paper would analyze different theories to provide an explanation on the expansion of the universe.
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Cosmology is an important discipline in astronomy. It explains various evolutions that have existed from the initial big bang theory to the recent changes and development in the universe. The effects of force and movements of stars and other physical elements in the universe have been the key elements that have contributed to expansion of the universe. The discipline further provides measurements that relate to the accelerating expansion of the universe (Rhee, 112). The distance between objects and the speed of their movements have greatly impacted on the gradual expansion of the universe.
The recent discoveries and measurements have enhanced the astronomer’s ability to come to the right conclusions regarding the expansions of the universe. The process is seen to be a continuous activity that no one can tell of its ending. Therefore, it is important to explain the key factors that contribute to the changes. The most crucial theories would include the big bang theory, the inflation theory. Alongside these theories, the contributions of different scientists have been incorporated in determination of the expansion of the universe. Einstein gravitational theory has played a key role in the understanding of how the speed of particles and stars in the space are held together. Therefore, with theoretical understanding in place, an individual would be able to establish an understanding of various components of the Universe.
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From the new observations and the technologies relating to cosmology, it has been shown that the big bang aspect of expansion of the universe originated from hot dense gas. The synthesis of these elements and the growth of the structure through gravitational force have significantly influenced the expansion of the universe. Therefore, the theories have majorly contributed to the justification of the expansion of the universe.
Albert Einstein’s Theory
Albert Einstein’s theory provides precise explanations of the causes of the expansion of the universe. Through his assumptions, the universe is shown to expand based on the spectrum analysis of light. For instance, he states that the astronomers. Einstein theory explains that the total energy density of the universe is equivalent to Hubble’s parameters and Newton’s gravitational concepts.
Einstein theory has contributed significantly to providing reasons on the expansion of the universe. As explained by Einstein the speed of the particles in space are often high. However, it is controlled by gravitational force. Balancing is achieved by repulsive cosmological forces that create balance to the gravitational attraction off matter. On the other hand, dark energy can be considered to have a considering effect to the expansion of the universe. The negative pressure, therefore, accelerates the universe expansion. Therefore, for the past decade, the stability of the acceleration of the universe has been attributed to matter and stars surrounding the galaxies. However, most of the matter in the universe does not absorb or emit light thus observational cases of dark matter.
The assumption of Hubble and Slipher in 1920’s, shows that all the energy in the universe is in form of radiation and ordinary matter. Ordinary matter is explained in quantum physics as elements that contain electrons protons and neutrons and neutrinos. Each of these particles contains energy which can be measured. The energy, therefore, has been shown to increase due to additional energy that is caused by the motion of these particles. The frequency of the movement, however, is often controlled by gravitational forces thus reducing their speed.
The impact of the existence of objects or matter in space and light can be linked the concept of quantum theory. It is important to rate different aspects that provide an explanation on how matter exists in nature and how it is energy contribute to the expansion of a particular entity or space. For this case, therefore, the objects and particles that exist in the universe are viewed as small particles that make up larger components of objects that the astronomers are able to view. These objects have energy due to the existence of small particles that carry energy thus making up an object or the observed particles. Therefore, continuous movements of such objects from one place to the other have accelerated the energy existing in the universe thus causing further expansion.
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Inflationary cosmology has been shown to also have an impact on the expansion of the universe. The process occurs since acceleration is created through the creation of cosmic field whose kinetic energy is less than potential energy (Baumann, et al., 313). A different field has with smaller energy has been shown to enhance acceleration of the changes observed by the astronomers today. It is critical to consider various events taking place in the universe. Besides, it allows people to understand the crucial reports that are often provided by the astronomers. The eternal inflation theory shows that after the big bang the universe expanded rapidly during the period called inflation. Therefore, based on the inflation concept, the theory shows that expansion has never stopped thus continuing to be encountered. In fact, through the theory, the concept of the new universe has been introduced through different physical laws.
The steady-state universe theory explains the creation of matter throughout the universe thus explaining the reason for continuous expansion. Besides, it also explains the fact that the universe would be infinite that is it would expand without an end. The theory just like the big bang explains the expansion of the universe based on the ability of particles to move apart thus can only be visible through the effects of light. However, critics have been established against this theory due to the mountain evidence of 1960 which indicated that the theory was incorrect (Agullo et al., 213). The standard inflation theory predicts that the universe is spatially flat. On the other hand, Inflation, therefore, is linked to dark energy that overcomes the gravitational self-attraction of matter thus causing the expansion to speed.
The aspect of energy and matter play a key role in the explanations of the elements and concepts outlining the expansion of the universe. Therefore it is critical to understand the concepts of matter and its ability to have an impactful energy that can accelerate the size of an object. Besides, the concept of impacts of light has been shown to have a greater influence compared to the dark objects. Light contains s energy in form of small particles called photons. Therefore when it strikes on the different particulate matter, it tends to transfer the energy thus increasing the total energy of objects. Therefore, the impacts of lights have been shown to account for the significant changes that have been observed for the objects that can absorb light. On the other hand, Objects that have drifted from the lights are shown to be influenced by other forces as gravitational forces and cosmology forces. The effects of these forces have enhanced and accelerated the energy as well. The acceleration of dark energy has therefore impacted on distribution and variation of the temperature observed in the recent times. As a result, both of these factors have contributed to the expansion of the universe.
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The cause of expansion can further be explained based on fundamental physics and theoretical perspectives of astronomers. The question regarding the end of such expansions continues to raise questions on the future of the universe. The evolution of the universe has been viewed to be determined by the energy it contains and the curvature of space. The cosmic expansion rates can, therefore, be explained using the impact of such energies on the universe.
Understanding of the universe and the stars is critical in analyzing on the various aspects that would contribute to the expansion of the universe. The most crucial factor that has influenced the expansion is the forces. Cosmological forces along with gravitational forces and the curvature aspects of the universe have been shown to significantly contribute to the understanding of the universe (Agullo et al., 213). As a result can, therefore, analyze the acceleration aspects of starts and other objects in the universe and conclude that energy is the key to the expansion of the universe. Accelerations have been viewed as the key factor that contributes to the expansion of the universe through static and uniform vacuum density or inhomogeneous density (Quintessence). The concepts behind the static and uniform vacuum are critical to understanding since it provides adequate understanding required to explain the expansion of the universe.
Despite the fact that cosmology has enhanced the understanding of expansion, more research is still required. Issues have been raised on the extent the universe would expand. On the contrary or it would accelerate in a reverse manner. Therefore, the recent research is focusing on establishing understanding and the right discoveries on the fate of the universe expansion (Dick, 214). On the contrary, scientists have already concluded that the process of expansion is infinite and thus no one can predict any fate.
Cosmology plays a crucial role in the explanation of the expansion of the universe. Albert Einstein has significantly contributed to the understanding of accelerating forces that creates energy thus expansion of the universe. The aspect of curvature and energy that the universe already contains, an individual can establish conclusion and the reasons as to why the universe expands. Furthermore, gravitational forces, inflation theory and steady state theory have been shown to influence the speed of accelerating objects thus controlling the impact of the forces on the universe.
- Agullo, Ivan, Abhay Ashtekar, and William Nelson. “Extension of the quantum theory of cosmological perturbations to the Planck era.” Physical Review D 87.4 (2013): 043507.
- Baumann, Daniel, and Liam McAllister. Inflation and string theory. Cambridge University Press, 2015.
- Dick, Steven J. Discovery and classification in astronomy: controversy and consensus. Cambridge University Press, 2013.
- Rhee, George. “Cosmic Dawn.” Cosmic Dawn, Astronomers’ Universe. ISBN 978-1-4614-7812-6. Springer Science+ Business Media, LLC, 2013, p. (2013).