Biology for informed citizen

Subject: Science
Type: Synthesis Essay
Pages: 2
Word count: 585
Topics: Biology

In Bozzone“ How Do We Know? Eggs and Sperm are both Needed for Fertilization”. Could there be modifications/ alterations to fertilization other than the normal egg and sperm? In recent times and with the ever-changing technology and scientific findings there are new ways of encouraging and aiding fertilization. For instance, in the past only the womb could serve as the required environment for fertilization, but ectogenesis (the growth and development of an organism artificially out of the normal body growth environment) has made it possible for artificial womb to be created, although not fully yet.

In ‘Biology for the informed citizen: with physiology’, Donna M. Bozzone states that for fertilization to occur, there has to be an egg and sperm. Without these two, fertilization cannot occur.However, there are modifications that are likely to be done for fertilization and reproduction to occur. According to the article‘Babies From Skin Cells? Prospect Is Unsettling to Some Experts’ states, “Within a decade or two, researchers say, scientists will likely be able to create a baby from human skin cells that have been coaxed to grow into eggs and sperm and used to create embryos to implant in a womb” (Lewin). This is an example of how technology and scienceaffect the normal fertilization and could be controversial. It therefore shows that alterations could be done to the normal fertilization method. This is a science process because it involves using human skin cells through reproduction to create eggs by coaxing the human skin cells into an embryo.

In today’s world, technology and new scientific findings has made so much possible especially in relation to reproduction. Lewin notes that reproduction could no longer require an egg that is produced by a woman for fertilization to take place. The only requirement would be two males. The process is called in vitro gametogenesis (I.V.G). Here, two men could have a child who is biologically reproduced from them by using the skin cells from one of them to make an egg that can be fertilized by the sperm produced from the other (Lewin). This would also be essential for women who are infertile because their skin cells can be used to make eggs. Lewin’s article and Bozzone’s book have something in common in terms of the fact that both are in agreement that an egg and sperm are needed for fertilization.

From the available evidence, for instance, as Bozzon explains, it is clear that an egg and sperm are vital for fertilization to occur. However, with the ever-changing technology and scientific explorations, as shown through Lewin’s human skin cells manipulation, alterations and modification can be done to the fertilization process. In the past, not much could be done because scientific research insufficient, but this has changed overtime as more discoveries are being made.

In conclusion, Bozzone’s book and Lewin’s article proves that an egg and a sperm are needed for fertilization to occur because the existence of one without the other it becomes difficult to reproduce in that the two have to meet.Without one of the sperm cell, fertilization cannot be successful. However, Lewin shows that alterations can be done to the natural fertilization process such that an egg can be created from other cells rather than from normal production. This is the effect of a combination between science and technology. Despite the fact that eggs have not been developed from skin cells as of yet, the potential has been proven and it could come to fruition in the near future.

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  1. Bozzone, Donna M. Biology for the Informed Citizen: With Physiology. , 2014. Print.
  2. Lewin, Tamar. “Babies from Skin Cells? Prospect Is Unsettling to Some Experts.” The New York Times, 16 May 2017,
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