Cardiovascular Disease

Subject: Health Care
Type: Descriptive Essay
Pages: 4
Word count: 1115
Topics: Disease, Health, Medicine, Public Health


Cardiovascular disease is a group of diseases that affect blood vessels, circulations of blood and the heart. Examples of cardiovascular diseases include heart attack, angina, stroke, coronary heart disease, and congenital heart disease. Strokes and heart attacks are acute events that are caused by blockage, which prevents blood from flowing to the brain or heart. The cause of cardiovascular diseases can occur because of different risk factors. These risk factors include; unhealthy diet, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, the use of tobacco and hyperlipidaemia. Research suggests that cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the world with an approximate of 17.7 million people dying in 2015 (“Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)”, 2018). Approximately 7.4 million died of coronary heart disease while 6 million died of stroke (“Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)”, 2018). More than half of deaths occur in middle and low-income countries. Most of the cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by handling the risk factors, for example, quit smoking and sedentary lifestyle. According to world health organization, risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases are categorized into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors.

Cardiovascular risk factors

The patient is a 76-year-old male with both modifiable and non-modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. The patient complains of dyspnoea and has a medical history of hypertension and atrial fibrillation and renal insufficiency. The patient admits to a sedentary lifestyle, he is on cardiac health diet, the current health problems include hypertension and atrial fibrillation, and he has been smoking for 20 years. Some of the non-modifiable risk factors presented include a history of cardiovascular disease; the father had a mini-stroke. The patient is also a 76 years old male, which is risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Modifiable risk factors

Living a sedentary lifestyle involves spending too much sitting and doing no exercises. The human body requires people to exercise occasionally to avoid diseases that are associated with the heart. Lack of exercises can result to different problems, for example, obesity, muscle atrophy, and osteoporosis. Most people overlook exercises but as one advances with age certain conditions like heart diseases can manifest due to lack of activity. According to world health organization, more than a third of people in the United States spare time for a thirty-minute exercise in a day. Few engage in other extreme activities. Regular exercises allow the body burn extra calories and extra fat, which is beneficial to the body because the blood pressure, clotting factors, and blood lipids are balanced. Different forms of exercises that can help prevent cardiovascular diseases that result from sedentary lifestyle include jogging, running, swimming, and cycling. For older people, cycling and swimming are the best (“Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)”, 2018).

Another modifiable risk factor is diet, health, and nutrition. The type of food ingested by an individual can improve their health. For example, too much intake of fat foods, meat, and sugary foods like soda can result to conditions like hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, and obesity (Murad, Atta-ur-Rahman. & Bian, 2017). All these conditions are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Poor diet has unhealthy fats, added sugars, and salt and is low in vegetables, fruits, fish, nuts, and whole grains. Modern food environments facilitate unhealthy diets. The current society relies on fast foods in restaurants, which is a prerequisite for heart diseases with time. The balanced diet involves eating the right amount and the right type of food.  A balanced diet must comprise of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and fats. Scientists suggest that the right amount of whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and nuts is the best diet.  Proper diet can help prevent cardiovascular diseases because the body ingests the right amount of food instead of excess food that can cause diseases in the body. 

Hypertension is described as having blood pressure that is elevated. The values of elevated blood pressure include a systolic of 140 and a diastolic of 90 (Murad, Atta-ur-Rahman. & Bian, 2017). Hypertension is a secondary disease to cardiovascular disease hypertension can be caused by genetic factors, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy diet choices. Elevation of blood pressure affects the blood vessels. The blood pressure becomes elevated thereby affecting the function of the heart. Due to this high blood pressure, the heart is overworked and forced to pump blood to other parts of the body, which can result in cardiovascular disease. 

Most people with hypertension have a history of high salt intake and sugary foods. Continuous high blood pressure damages walls of blood vessels and causes hyperplasia. Treating hypertension involves proper diet intake, avoid smoking, avoid alcohol, and exercising. Drugs can also be used to manage hypertension, for example, antihypertensive can be given to the patient to reduce the signs and symptoms (Murad, Atta-ur-Rahman. & Bian, 2017). 

Atrial fibrillation is an irregular heart rate that is characterized by a rapid heart rate. The condition can increase the risk of heart failure, stroke, and other heart conditions. In atrial fibrillation, the two upper chambers of the heart beat irregularly and are out of coordination with the lower chambers. The condition can result to blood clots around the heart and other organs. Treatment involves drugs that will attempt to interfere with the electrical system of the heart.

Smoking cigarettes is a preventable cause of heart diseases. Smoking accounts for more than two million deaths of people in America (Murad, Atta-ur-Rahman. & Bian, 2017). Cigarettes contain tar, nicotine, and carbon dioxide, which are responsible for coronary artery disease. Gums, inhalers, and patches are important techniques that are used to help people quit smoking.

Non-modifiable risk factors

Age comes with different degenerative conditions, and one of them is cardiovascular diseases. The more one becomes older, the more the heart rate slows down, blood vessels losses elasticity making the pumping function of the heart harder. Gender is also a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. According to the world health organization, males under eighty years are at a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases than females (Naschitz, 2015). A family history of cardiovascular disease is a risk factor that can be based on genetics. Heart diseases can be inherited from parents to offspring, which is difficult to prevent. A person born with cardiovascular disease can only receive treatment to manage the signs and symptoms. It is also important for patients with non-modifiable risk factors to practice healthy lifestyle, exercise, and eat healthy diets like fruits, vegetables, and legumes.


According to world health organization cardiovascular diseases is the leading cause of death in low and middle-class people in the United States. Those affected are mostly men under eighty years. The disease can be prevented as long as healthy lifestyle is recommended for modifiable risk factors. For unmodifiable risk factors, proper diet and drug therapy is key to survival. 

Need a custom paper ASAP?
We can do it today.
Tailored to your instructions. 0% plagiarism.

Did you like this sample?
  1. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). (2018). World Health Organization. Retrieved 11 February 2018, from
  2. Murad, F., Atta-ur-Rahman., & Bian, K. (2017). Cardiovascular Diseases. Sharjah: Bentham Science Publishers.
  3. Naschitz, J., Slobodin, G., Lewis, R., Zuckerman, E., & Yeshurun, D. (2015). Heart diseases affecting the liver and liver diseases affecting the heart. American Heart Journal, 140(1), 111- 120. 
Related topics
More samples
Related Essays