Table of Contents
Care plan approaches are for persons with mental illness who in the process of their treatment they have several professionals working with them. Thus this plan distinctively shows the support each professional has had on the patient plus it indicates the treatment needed. According to Lloyd (2013) in writing a care programme Approach, there are key factors that need to be put into consideration. That is, the plan is crucial for recovery of the patient in that if not written properly, a stage may be skipped, and that will be disadvantageous to the patient, as a professional the theory and knowledge about mental health should work in line with the patient’s needs. CPA for acute mental health entails the following stages.
The first important stage is the assessment stage (Henderson, 2016), to write a good care plan an elaborate assessment plan should be in place. This stage is important in gathering information about the patient. Medical-practitioners has the mandate to employ good communication skills to understand the patient’s needs. In this stage entails assessing whether the patient is agitated, active or irritable and noting down the observations. Most paranoid schizophrenia patients show traits of bumping their head against the wall. To obtain more information about the patient, professionals can ask for information from a relative; friends caregivers about seeking the consent of the patient. Planning is the next stage which entails coming up with ways on how to address the needs that have been identified. The nurse may discuss with other professionals the short and long-term goals for the patient’s recovery (Mandik, 2016; NCBI, 2014). The third step is the implementation of the identified goals. The question in this stage is on who will be involved in which stage and to achieve the goals and the time to be taken. Lastly is the evaluation of the care plan.
Pathophysiological explanation to etiology of Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a syndrome that affects the brain functionality (Lloyd, 2013). Unlike other chronic diseases such as heart diseases which can be diagnosed by the blood test, diagnosis of a mental illness like schizophrenia diagnosis is a subjective endeavor (Weir, 2012). Understanding of the genetic etiology of schizophrenia has taken center stage by the look of recent scientific studies. Schizophrenia is characterized by a disturbance in cognition, inability to choose things freely and disturbance in perception. Incomplete understood dysregulation of the limbic neurocircuitry and frontotemporal are believed to be the clinical manifestation of schizophrenia (Fattal and Muzina, 2013; Joseph, 2016). According to Hanson and Gottesman 2011, physiologic abnormalities leading to schizophrenia can allude to the disruption of the regulation of the delivery of energy and oxygen required for the normal functioning of the brain which is attached to the theory of vascular component. In their study Hanson and Gottesman 2011,) further suggests that the theory of schizophrenia postulates that the CNS metabolism abnormalities arise because inflammatory reactions damage the microvascular system in the brain is genetically modulated in reaction to the environmental agents.
The theory of vascular inflammatory of schizophrenia tries to explain the variety of symptoms and outcomes observed in schizophrenia patients since it brings together genetic and environmental factors responsible for the disorder (Fattal and Muzina 2013). Schizophrenia is characterized by both developmental and degenerative traits. According to Hanson and Gottesman, it has been found that most of the cases of schizophrenia can be traced back to the early life of the patient’s parent. These cases tend to explain the genetic connection of the etiology schizophrenia. Also, follow back studies supports the theory. Schizophrenia is etiologically heterogeneous, and studies have proven that most central nervous system disorders can result in schizophrenia-like symptoms. DNA sequence variation is responsible these symptoms (Harrison, 2014)
Schizophrenic patient requires maintained treatments. Having developed a care for the patient the next thing that hits the mind of the professional is the need to help their clients recover. Assessment of the client gives a hint the steps to be followed and which of the steps should be given the priority. The first step is the formulation of a working diagnosis and initial treatment plan. This entails shared decision-making and psychiatric nursing. Nurses use biopsychosocial care approach which involves patient’s education, spiritual support for these patients. Having identified the goal for the client’s recovery medication such as olanzapine can be administered to clients who have antipsychotic medication side effects (Mahone et al., 2016). This is a priority as it partially arrests the constant distress and anxiety.
Treatment decision and follow up is the next step to be followed in line with the assessment made. Patient’s indication of the wish to be inclusively involved in decision making for the treatment plan thus a decision to switch on medication should be through the willingness of the client (Mahone et al., 2016). In this case, LAI antipsychotics since the client had no family members to help the client maintain oral treatment of antipsychotic. Another move is to involve the patient in a peer-to-peer encouragement program where the client could befriend people who have a similar struggle. This decision was arrived after noting and discussing the appropriate measure since the client was socially isolated
Cognitive therapy is an effective approach for persons with psychotic symptoms cannot be controlled through medication. In the event the patient or client has a poor ability to cope or has social withdrawal then cognitive therapy can use to normalize rationale (Chien et al., 2013). Cognitive remediation therapy can also be used in patients with impaired cognition. The impairment is common in schizophrenia patients thus using cognitive therapy is challenged due to lack of rational thoughts, attention and working memory. Thus adopting the use of environmental aids that enhance cognitive functioning can be employed with the aim of helping those who are suffering from the disorder. The last method is psychoeducation programs, is an appropriate approach for patients with relapses thus helps in cutting down the coat of hospitalization (Frankenburg, 2017). In conclusion, schizophrenia is a chronic disorder that requires a constant engagement in treatment with the client if a total recovery is the aim of both the patient and the professional.
- Chien, W., Leung, S., Yeung, F. and Wong, W. (2013). Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part II: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives in psychiatric care. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, p.1463.
- Fattal, O. and Muzina, D. (2013). Schizophrenia and Acute Psychosis. [Online] Clevelandclinicmeded.com.
- Frankenburg, F. (2017). Schizophrenia Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Antipsychotic Pharmacotherapy, Other Pharmacotherapy. [Online] Emedicine.medscape.com.
- Hanson, D. and Gottesman, I. (2011). Theories of schizophrenia: a genetic-inflammatory-vascular synthesis. BMC Medical Genetics, 6(1).
- Harrison, P. (2014). Recent genetic findings in schizophrenia and their therapeutic relevance. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 29(2), pp.85-96.
- Henderson, R. (2016). Schizophrenia. Paranoid schicophrenia signs and treatment. [Online] Patient.info.
- Jay Joseph, P. (2017). Schizophrenia and Genetics: A Closer Look at the Evidence – Mad In America. [Online] Mad In America.
- NCBI. (2014). Psychosis and Schizophrenia in Adults. [Online] Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
- Lloyd, M. (2012). Practical Care Planning for Personalised Mental Health Care. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
- Madick, K. (2016). CEUFast – Unexpected Error. [Online] Ceufast.com.
- Mahone, I., Maphis, C. and Snow, D. (2016). Effective Strategies for Nurses Empowering Clients with Schizophrenia: Medication Use as a Tool in Recovery. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 37(5), pp.372-379.
- Weir, K. (2016). The roots of mental illness. [Online]