Individual Reflection Paper

Subject: Business
Type: Reflective Essay
Pages: 21
Word count: 5294
Topics: Career Path, Leadership, Self Reflection, Work Experience

Chapter One

Leadership involves leaders and followers who work toward common goals. Daft (2018) defined leadership as “an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes and outcomes that reflect their shared purposes” (p. 5). Based on Daft’s definition, leadership is “multidirectional” or involves influence from leaders to followers and vice-versa. Also, leaders are different from tyrants because their power does not involve coercion of any form, such as threats of violence or violent acts (Daft, 2018, p. 5). Furthermore, leadership means implementing changes because leaders challenge the status quo. Lastly, leaders and followers seek to achieve ends that will benefit them both. Leadership embodies a working relationship in which leaders and followers pursue actions that achieve collective ends.

The definition from Daft offers a general illustration of what leadership should be but lacks details on the characteristics of good leaders. Should a leader be popular or likeable? Or can a boring person who can influence followers be a good leader? Prentice (2004) provided an important insight about leaders: “His unique achievement is a human and social one which stems from his understanding of his fellow workers and the relationship of their individual goals to the group goal that he must carry out.” He is saying that a leader does not have to be necessarily likeable or a great conversationalist. A good leader only has to understand what motivates his followers and connect group goals to individual motivations for an influence relationship to occur. Such a definition is inclusive of many people who are not popular or charming but can shape individual behaviors to fit group intentions. Individuals who can understand the psychological basis of motivation for others can lead them.

My organization is full of leaders with different personalities who can get things done because they have influence and can motivate followers to pursue organizational goals. An example is a project manager who is not exactly popular because of his micromanaging habits but exerts enough influence to spur his followers in implementing their action plans. In other words, his likeability among his followers is low but they follow him due to his authority and clear group targets as well as deadlines. Because they are self-managed, they have high productivity. Followers have a large role to play in accepting their roles and performing assigned tasks despite being dissatisfied with their boss’ leadership approach. As long as they find a connection between group goals and individual goals, they would follow a not-so-likeable leader. 

Chapter Two 

Leadership behaviors and relationships can directly affect employee performance, satisfaction, and retention (Venkataramani, Green, & Schleicher, 2010). Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory states that mutual trust and respect between supervisors and subordinates can increase productivity and commitment for in-group members (Lin, Lin, & Chang, 2017). In addition, leaders usually have good relationships with followers with whom they have similarities, such as hobbies and educational background. Furthermore, they favor employees who demonstrate great interest in their work and exemplify competence (Daft, 2018, p. 54). High-quality LMX relationships offer benefits to both leaders and followers. Leaders take advantage of the productivity of good workplace relationships, while in-group followers get more challenging assignments that fit promotion needs, higher responsibility, and better tangible rewards, such as higher salaries and bonuses (Daft, 2018, p. 54). Leaders, followers, and organizations reap benefits from the improved effort and initiative to conduct projects and tasks effectively.

My concern about LMX relationships is that they benefit in-group members only, while out-group members fail to access the same resources and opportunities as the former, which makes the relationship unfair to the larger part of the organization; nevertheless, it manifests acceptable satisficing decision-making as a leader. On the one hand, high-quality LMX relationships can create loyal top performers. Organizations will benefit from retaining top employees because they are productive and can offer creative ideas that can be turned into stars and/or cash cows. On the other hand, out-group members may be dissatisfied with the special attention provided to in-group members. While in-group members have high work satisfaction and commitment, some out-group ones may feel left out and disadvantaged. Nonetheless, I realized that leaders have limited time and resources. They cannot possibly give high-quality LMX relations to everyone. I can call this a satisficing decision because choosing quality relations with a few members is satisfactory compared to increasing the number of close relationships that will result in extraordinary cost and effort. Leaders will prefer a few, deep relations with top performers than many connections with mediocre employees.

I can relate to the advantages of LMX relationships when I handled an IT project for an accounting company. As the leader of ten people- five software developers, one business analyst, one network engineer, and three system analysts- I developed the closest relationships with three software developers and one system analyst because we all came from the same country and universities. With common background factors, we easily built rapport. Careful of not showing favoritism, I made sure to treat everyone fairly. However, I cannot help but be supportive of my in-group members because they work hard and ask for mentoring. As a result, while I give them more resources and guidance, they were able to help out-group members as well because they share whatever I give them. In our case, my high-quality LMX relationship with them resulted in high worker-worker relationship quality with out-groups too. In addition, I witnessed high team satisfaction due to very few interpersonal conflicts and the outcome of finishing the project on time. Hence, LMX theory may also produce high overall team productivity and satisfaction.

Chapter Three

The goal of Fiedler’s contingency model is to allow leaders to analyze the leadership style and organizational situation. Central to the theory is determining the degree to which the leadership style is relationship- or task-oriented (Daft, 2018, p. 73). A leader who shows concern for followers through establishing mutual trust and respect as well as listening to their needs is relationship-oriented (Daft, 2018, p. 73). Conversely, a leader who is task-driven is task-oriented (Daft, 2018, p. 73). Furthermore, a task-oriented leader offers clear directions and performance standards (Daft, 2018, p. 73). To identify the leadership style, people can answer the least preferred coworker (LPC) scale, which has 16 bipolar adjectives on an eight-point scale. If the leader illustrates the least preferred coworker through positive words, she is relationship-oriented and sensitive to how other people feel (Daft, 2018, p. 73). On the contrary, if a leader utilizes negative concepts to depict the least preferred coworker, she is task-oriented as she values tasks over people’s emotions (Daft, 2018, p. 74). In addition, Fielder studied the connection among leadership style, group task performance, and situational favorability, and learned that task-oriented leaders demonstrated higher effectiveness when the situation is either largely favorable or unfavorable (Daft, 2018, p. 75). On the opposite, relationship-oriented leaders are better than task-oriented peers when situations demonstrate moderate favorability (Daft, 2018, p. 75). In extreme favorability conditions, leaders who can take the helm and offer a clear direction are better than the ones who are too sensitive of relationships that they appear indecisive and ineffective, especially when they delay important decisions.

The findings on situational favorability and leadership effectiveness is interesting to me because I have always thought that when highly unfavorable situations happen and conflicts arise, leaders should focus on relationships over tasks; nonetheless, I think that leaders also have to consider other factors when focusing on tasks. When tensions bubble and produce interpersonal clashes, I believe that a relationship-oriented leader will be the best to manage these issues. However, Fiedler’s contingency model suggests otherwise which makes sense if people are so mad at each other that they would rather concentrate on their leader and tasks.  Nonetheless, task-orientedness may not always work if the situation is highly unfavorable and the group has collective cultural norms (Lopez, 2016). The emphasis on task alone may make them feel unimportant which lower morale and soon, engagement and productivity. Leaders should also consider contextualizing the use of task-orientedness in extremely low situational favorability.

When I answered the LPC scale, I am more of task-oriented but also had moderate relationship-orientedness, meaning I focus on tasks but I care about relationships too, an accurate way of describing my leadership style. On the one hand, task accomplishment motivates me, as well as clear goals, structures, and monitoring measures. The projects I handle are highly-technology driven so a high task structure is important to implementing detailed action plans. On the other hand, I respect the emotional needs and interpersonal concerns of my team members. In one project, a team member offended another without the former knowing about it. The outcome was a drop in productivity of the offended party, combined with an increase in his irritability. When I asked what the real problem was, he disclosed that the engineer embarrassed him unnecessarily. I asked him that he should inform this person about how he felt to avoid future recurrence. While he was reluctant at first, he eventually told his co-worker who apologized earnestly. The team went back to the pre-interpersonal-conflict stage, and even more harmonious and productive. I learned that even if I am task-oriented, I should also be sensitive to relationship issues before they blow up and harm the entire team as well as our productivity and project outcomes.

Chapter 5

Emotional intelligence is important to effective leaders. Emotional intelligence pertains to an individual’s capability to perceive, determine, understand, and manage emotions in the self and others (Daft, 2018, p. 146). A person who is emotionally intelligent tends to be experts in managing their emotions and relationships (Daft, 2018, p. 146).  Boyatzis and Goleman (2001) identified the four components of emotional intelligence: self-awareness, social awareness, self-management, and relationship management (Daft, 2018, p. 150).  Self-awareness includes an accurate self-assessment, self-confidence, and emotional self-awareness, while social awareness involves empathy, service-centeredness, and organizational awareness (Daft, 2018, p. 150). Self-management consists of emotional self-control, adaptability, optimism, and initiative among others, whereas relationship management is composed of people development, bond building, communication, inspirational leadership, and other aspects about other-centered management (Daft, 2018, p. 150).

I agree with this chapter that a leader who has high emotional intelligence tends to be effective due to the capability of balancing task-orientedness and relationship-centeredness. Upadhyaya (2017) studied the impact of Emotional Enhancer Workshops on organizational productivity and learned that they not only improved performance but also employee relationships. An interesting finding is that gender differences did not affect emotional competencies. Men can be as capable as women in nurturing and expressing high emotional intelligence. Furthermore, I can see why leaders with high EQ are successful; they know when to focus on tasks and when to bring up relationships. They have a sense of balance because they listen to others, not only themselves. I am not saying that the leader should have an empty ego. A healthy sense of self-esteem is important to confidence in leadership too. However, a good leader knows how and when to listen to her followers as well. Using input from others can greatly improve relationships and decision quality.

To check my emotional intelligence, I rated myself in the components of emotional intelligence. I learned that I have high emotional awareness and moderate service orientation and empathy. Moreover, I showed good emotional control and adaptability, moderate optimism, high initiative, moderate communication, and moderate conflict management. If I am going to assess myself, I have high self-awareness and self-management and moderate social awareness and relationship management, which supports my task-orientedness leadership style with moderate relationship-centeredness. I can work on my social awareness by improving empathy through taking time to connect to how others feel. In addition, I can enhance relationship management through developing (mentoring) others, and boosting communication and conflict management skills.  For example, I should practice mentoring if the time permits and study different ways of managing conflict and reflect on how I successfully applied them in the workplace and everyday life.

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Chapter 6

Kohlberg offers a useful model for moral development which has three levels. Level 1 is preconventional morality, the stage in which people follow the rules to prevent being punished (Daft, 2018, p. 175). The main goal here is protecting the self (Daft, 2018, p. 175). Next is Level 2, conventional morality in which people act to live up to the expectations of others (Daft, 2018, p. 175). At this stage, people follow the duties and laws of the social system (Daft, 2018, p. 175). The last is Level 3, postconventional morality in which individuals have internalized universal principles of morality (Daft, 2018, p. 175). When people think at this stage, they balance self-interests with concern for the common good (Daft, 2018, p. 175). Level 3 people can do what is right regardless of what others expect them to do (Daft, 2018, p. 175). Some individuals move from one level to the highest, while others tend to stay in one stage.

The three stages of moral development can help leaders assess themselves and move toward postconventional morality, particularly if they have Machiavellianism tendencies. Machiavellianism means that people generally believe that the ends will justify the means (Sendjaya et al., 2016). A study examined if Machiavellianism can moderate the relationship between moral reasoning/action and authentic leadership (i.e. this leadership “fosters a sense of self-awareness, an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing of information, and relational transparency”) (Sendjaya et al., 2016, p. 125). Findings indicated that when Machiavellianism was high, the connection between moral reasoning/action and authentic leadership dropped. In other words, a person with postconventional morality but is Machiavellian in thinking can fall to preconventional morality. To reduce Machiavellianism, leaders must focus on postconventional ethical principles than the ends. Otherwise, even if they can already think at a higher ethical plane, they can retrogress to the first stage of morality when facing high-risk situations that can undercut moral standards.

I thought about the levels of morality and assess myself to be somewhere between conventional and postconventional thinking. While I have an internalized understanding of what is right and wrong and hold universal ethical values, I also live up to the expectations of others. Group values are important to me as a person. Likewise, I do not mind following my duties because they are part of my responsibilities. Following the law is considered a personal obligation too. Clearly, I am a task-oriented person who prefers order to muddled decision-making, especially when facing complex ethical situations. Although I have not experienced anything that would make me decline from postconventional to preconventional morality, I would like to avoid this by emphasizing the centrality of universal principles and how it is a task structure in itself, an organized way of making ethical decisions in whatever I do.

Chapter 8

One of the most important motivators is empowerment. It offers strong motivation because people have a sense that they can control their work as well as their success (Daft, 2018, p. 244). Research suggests that many employees desire self-efficacy, the capacity to achieve results or outcomes, and feel their effectiveness (Daft, 2018, p. 244). Many people go to work because they know they can do a good job, and empowerment allows leaders to tap internal motivators (Daft, 2018, p. 244). Five components must be present before employees can experience empowerment: “information, knowledge, discretion, meaning, and rewards” (Daft, 2018, p. 244). Employees who receive timely and accurate company performance information plus knowledge and skills to do their job well, have the power to make relevant decisions, understand the significance and effect of their jobs, and rewarded according to their performance are empowered workers (Daft, 2018, p. 244). 

Empowerment may be easier for relationship-orientedness leaders but also possible for adaptive task-oriented ones. Leaders who care for people are open to sharing power with them. Additionally, they do not mind giving their followers information and coaching them. In a way, empowering people may be “natural” for them already. On the contrary, task-oriented leaders may have a hard time empowering people, unless they find this essential to achieving tasks. I think task-oriented leaders can also adapt to group or department goals. Knowing that the goals would require empowered employees, a task leader would accept the sharing of power and information. However, a non-adaptive one may stifle empowerment and reduce not only employee satisfaction but also increase employee turnout.

Because I am a task-oriented leader, I thought about my own empowering abilities and realized that when I am reluctant to empower, it is not because of power-hungriness but doubt in the employee’s ability to make substantive decisions and his knowledge and skills to perform well. If employees have high competence and initiative, such as what I witness in my high-quality LMX relations, I can easily empower them through giving resources and development opportunities. However, if I know that the person is unmotivated or unreliable, I will think twice in empowering him. Why would I give higher responsibilities to a person who cannot even complete low-level ones satisfactorily? This seems counter-intuitive to me. Nevertheless, as I refer to the five components of empowerment, I recognized the importance of proper training and preparation. If I or another person can mentor or coach an employee and find positive company behavior improvements, then she is worthy of empowerment. I also have to do my job of mentoring her or delegate this job to another, in order for empowerment to be given and result in workplace effectiveness.

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Chapter 9

Besides speech, the proper use of nonverbal communication is essential to effective leadership. Nonverbal communication pertains to messages that are expressed through facial expressions, behaviors, gestures, and tone of voice, among other non-speech communication components (Daft, 2018, p. 281). Many people are not aware that even if they are not speaking directly, they are already communicating through how they act. Even the slightest movement of the eye can have meaning to the audience or recipient of the message. Moreover, the communication channel itself can either affect the message or send a symbolic intent (Daft, 2018, p. 281). People give meaning to channels too (Daft, 2018, p. 281). For instance, memos and reports indicate formality, while personal visits tend to be perceived as more caring and less formal (Daft, 2018, p. 281). Channels and nonverbal cues work together in forming the manner of speaking that can say something about the speech itself. A leader should be sensitive of these nonverbal cues and use them to emphasize speech statements.

People with high emotional intelligence are adept in using nonverbal communication. With high emotional responsiveness comes the desire to listen to the other completely, not just what is being said but how. By listening to nonverbal communication, leaders can catch speech incongruence, the mismatch between what is said and what is meant. For example, a boss asks his secretary to finish all her tasks through overtime and the latter says, “Okay boss,” but only after a few seconds of pause and a sad tone. She says “yes,” but she means “no.” If the leader has good emotional intelligence, he would read between the lines and say, “You know what, I think you’re done for the day. You may have something to do later. But I will still expect the report after lunch at the latest.” This is an illustration of how a boss changes his expectations after properly reading nonverbal cues. His ability to put himself in the situation of others allowed him to interpret nonverbal signs properly.

Due to my being a stickler to deadlines and rules, I may miss nonverbal cues, not because I am cold-hearted, but I fail to pay sufficient attention; consequently, the resolution is to build my emotional intelligence in catching and reading non-verbal expressions. Rules, deadlines, and deliverables drive my workplace existence. The task structure simplifies the approach to work and improves work effectiveness for me. Nevertheless, I felt guilty about my hypothetical example of the boss because I think I can be insensitive to nonverbal cues. Sometimes, when I ask team members to do something extra, I am not actively listening for these nonverbal codes perhaps because I would like to be unaffected. In reality, if I want to be a better leader, I should enhance this aspect of my emotional intelligence- the capacity to read and interpret nonverbal cues well. 

Chapter 11

Workforce diversity is a reality for many organizations today. A diverse workforce is one that is composed of people with different human characteristics or belong to numerous cultural groups (Daft, 2018, p. 329). Individuals would see diversity as the aspects of physical, social, economic, and cultural differences, such as age, gender, race, physical ability, and socioeconomic status. Diversity used to be a limited concept but has increasingly expanded as more people felt freer to express their individuality. For instance, before, gay people were not yet as diversely categorized as today. For illustration, a gay person may not be a homosexual but a bisexual or a transvestite in particular. Diversity underlines the complexity of individual and social identities that are not static but are in flux and changing as some people go through different stages in life.

An empathetic leader would be open to diversity and not stifle or judge it. Empathy means being capable of putting oneself in the shoes of others. In diverse organizations, a leader will be exposed to different followers. A leader with conservative religious views may be shocked if for the first time, she has a follower who is bisexual. Initially, she may feel uncomfortable with the idea of a man who feels like a man or a woman at different times or days. After all, she grew up knowing two genders only, masculine and feminine. However, after receiving diversity training, she realizes that she cannot box other people in the way she labels herself. Each person has the free will to choose her gender identity. At the same time, she practices empathy and imagines herself in the place of the bisexual. If she feels her gender is bisexual, she would want to be autonomous in expressing her sexuality. Empathy enables her to be an authentic leader of diversity.

In our workplace, we have a policy that respects diversity, but it is not always applied in real life. One of our team members is bisexual. Over a lunch meeting, a devout Catholic asked her what bisexuality means, and she answered it means being male or female depending on her feelings. The devout male laughed and said, “Can’t you just make up your mind if you’re gay or male or female? It seems like you’re only being fickle-minded when it comes to sexuality.” I can see by the facial reaction of the bisexual that she was severely offended. Clearly unable to control her feelings, she said, “Excuse me,” and left. The man did not see her reaction because he was eating. Immediately, I intervened and told him, “Will, you embarrassed Julia. You didn’t see her face, but she was offended. We shouldn’t tell people how they should feel about their sexuality. Would you like her to berate your masculinity as well as if it’s something arbitrary?” Understanding that I wanted him to empathize, he later talked to Julia and made amends. Leaders have a significant role to play in ensuring that people respect diversity as consistently as possible.

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Chapter 13

A vision refers to a future state that compels people to work together to achieve it. Scintillating people to act as one, a vision must be compelling but also credible (Daft, 2018, p. 400). Furthermore, people should be able to understand what they can do to contribute to the vision. For instance, I manage projects while thinking about the corporate vision of a better world where people use technology to develop society into its highest humane form. Our vision is not to make money per se but to make this world a better place. It is a vision that is both inspiring and feasible. Even other employees, when asked, know what the vision is and how they can partake in achieving it. Knowledge of our vision is widespread due to the top management that orients us, from the first day of the job to our quarterly and annual meetings. When they talk about our vision, I feel their energy and dedication; their commitment to the vision revitalizes me.

A great vision can shape strong financial and human outcomes. I agree with this statement, “Strong, inspiring visions have been associated with higher organizational performance and greater employee motivation and satisfaction” (Daft, 2018, p. 400). We also have a clear and motivating vision that spurs us to work hard. Everything we do is aligned to the vision. As a result, each time we finish a project, we feel satisfied because we added to the organization’s movement toward the vision. The last time we completed a project, one of the members said, “That’s another brick to a better society,” and we all nodded. Aware of our vision, we exhibit high productivity and employee satisfaction plus engagement. The vision is an effective internal motivator. Essentially, our vision is not only good for our bottom line; it is also good for our souls. 

Chapter 14

Organizational culture is the blueprint of how things are done in the workplace. Culture refers to the core “values, assumptions, understandings, and norms that are shared by members of an organization and taught to new members as correct” (Daft, 2018, p. 431). Norms refer to collective standards that determine acceptable actions (Daft, 2018, p. 431). An example of cultural norms in my company is using specific approaches to decision-making. We follow a flow chart when analyzing problems and thinking of problems. For us, this is the correct way of thinking about problems. Another example of cultural value is openness. In our company, we have a flatter hierarchy than other organizations. We can express opinions professionally without holding grudges. Culture pertains to the mental map of employees in how they think and act regarding their work.

Culture refers to what people accept as the right behaviors and actions, and leaders must set ethical norms as part of the culture. The idea of what is right can be easily muddled, depending on the organizational culture. In Enron, what is “wrong” became what is “right” because top management encouraged and rewarded unethical and illegal acts. They become Machiavellian by stressing that the ends justify the means. Pressuring traders and employees to deliver high stock prices, the leaders promoted fraudulent actions. As long as stock prices were high, they made more money, the most important goal. Such is an illustration of a toxic culture, one where skewing morality made sense as long as they earned significant money in the short run. Leaders should set positive norms, not condone immoral ones as it will result in a culture of widespread anomaly.

I can say that I love our culture of excellence but it can improve more on diversity. As a task-oriented leader, I appreciate the value of high-level results. By having clear goals, standards, measures, and deliverables, we can attain excellence. Through access to resources and training, employees are prepared to deliver excellence. An illustration is a project on managing resources. We worked hard in deploying the final system on time. Due to a member getting sick, we almost did not make it. But because we pursue excellence, we divided the tasks as equally as possible and worked over time. Consequently, we also outsourced some routine jobs. Thankfully, we finished a high-quality project in time. We had a party afterwards because we were satisfied with the results of our teamwork. Despite of our excellence as a cultural trait, I know we can do better on diversity management. Specifically, gender sensitivity should be increased not only through diversity policies but gender awareness workshops. We need to be more aware of and sensitive of how we see and treat gender differences. By diversity, we should walk the talk.

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Lessons Learned

Leadership can be learned, starting with the concept of the influence relationship and common goals. I thought before that it would be hard to be a leader because I can be too direct when it comes to expressing myself. Afraid of embarrassing anyone, I tried to avoid leadership positions. However, I learned that I can also be a good leader. Specifically, I got my power from my management and technological capabilities. My authority came from my expertise. In addition, the course showed how I used influence relationship. To motivate people to work together, I take the time knowing who they are, their personalities, dreams, and career goals, aside from their skills. This way, I can have an idea of their inner motivators and connect these to project and career goals. From this example, I can also mentor others to be leaders through teaching the influence relationship and the vitality of shared goals.

If people can become leaders by being sensitive and responsive to the influence relationship, they should also be aware of how to manage these relationships to maximize positive organizational outcomes. Leadership is about managing relationships, especially as they change throughout time. An example is when I managed developers who planned for changes in career goals. We were in the midst of an important project when I heard that another company was recruiting them. I talked to them one-on-one about it because I wanted to be assured of their commitment. I did not want to be left hanging because they would suddenly leave the company. I asked them what the other company offered. The salaries were 30% higher and it was not within my power to provide a more competitive power. However, I emphasized that we have stock options and better health insurance. I connected these to their family needs and assured them I would help negotiate higher salaries for the next project. They agreed and I did help them improve their compensation. Leadership means managing relationships and keeping organizational commitment high.

I am a task-oriented leader who can improve my social awareness skills and relationship management skills. I have to enhance my ability to empathize with others even when it would conflict with my work concerns. An example is when an engineer wanted to take an emergency leave because his father got sick. At first, I wanted to say “no” and advise him to hire a temporary caregiver instead. However, I thought about this course and the meaning of emotional intelligence. I put myself in his position and felt his dilemma. Consequently, I thought about other options and realized he could work flexi-time. I allowed him a long leave as long as he delivered the project tasks on time. We also agreed on a regular reporting schedule. This experience showed that with effort, empathy, and creativity, I can enhance my social awareness skills and relationship management skills. 

Because of this course, I have developed a new leadership vision of myself, one that is adaptive to different situations and cultures and willing to apply relationship-centeredness as needed, including being adept in nonverbal communication and empowerment. I once had a highly task-centered vision, nearly leaving relationship out. Numbers and structure molded my way of leadership. Recently, I noted the importance of relationships and how they can also enhance the quality of my task structure. Through empathy, I can be flexible to changing situations and respectful of diverse cultures. Moreover, by honing my social awareness skills and relationship management skills, I can use high emotional intelligence in dealing with my team members. This also includes being sensitive to nonverbal cues and responding properly. In addition, I want to be an empowering leader who can prepare my followers for greater challenges and responsibilities. Hence, my leadership vision grows and enables me to lead more effectively in diverse workplaces and empowered teams.

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  1. Daft, R. L. (2018). The leadership experience (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage. 
  2. Lin, W. J., Lin, C. Y., & Chang, Y. H. (2017). The impact of coaching orientation on subordinate performance: The moderating effects of implicit person theory and LMX. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 55, 86–105. 
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  6. Upadhyaya, A. S. (2017). To study the relative importance and cruciality of emotional intelligence for the success of organization, an empirical study of ABC company private limited. International Journal of Management Research and Reviews, 7(4), 450-465.
  7. Venkataramani, V., Green, S.G., & Schleicher, D. J. (2010). Well-connected leaders: The impact of leaders’ social network ties on LMX and members’ work attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(6), 1071–1084.
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