Table of Contents
The dynamic landscape of the UAE healthcare system and the nursing education sector is propelling changes towards higher competition levels in the international sphere. In this regard, talent education and management has become a core aspect of the human resource management in the nursing field, especially in terms of addressing the future needs of the nurses and their ability to deliver quality care efficiently and effectively. A review of literature suggests that the healthcare system in different parts of the world are increasingly appreciating the role played by talent management in terms of making the delivery of care more competitive and efficient. This paper employs a quantitative research design in a study that utilizes 98 respondents from nursing schools in the UAE. The study demonstrates that there is a positive correlation between talent management and the quality of nursing education. The current study makes a conclusion that, based on the evidence that talent management strategies improve the quality of nursing education, it is a viable future for the future of nursing education in the UAE.
Education and talent management are important aspects of nursing education as this ensure that healthcare is delivered in an efficient and effective manner, which guarantees quality healthcare. Talent management refers to an organizational process that is spearheaded by the senior leaders that involves defining, developing, attracting, and retaining talented employees to best meet the business objectives. Education refers to the process of equipping the nurses with the necessary skills to ensure that they have the necessary capabilities to take care of the modern patient. The nursing education in the UAE has evolved over a period of time, and nursing education has been found to be fundamental in ensuring that quality healthcare is achieved. The UAE has been reported to have a high quality healthcare system, which is characterized by nurses that are well trained and hospitals are licenses and accredited. The competency of nurses is very important aspect in the UAE. However, talent education and talent management are aspect aspects that have not been taken into consideration. According to Schuler et al. (2011), failure to attract and retain top talent employees is the seventh most risky aspect in business. Therefore, forming a transformational system that is real and sustainable will progressively be aimed at developing skills and talent management. In this regard, the main aim of this paper is to critically examine the manner that education and talent management is a fundamental aspect for the future of nursing education in UAE.
Aims and research question of the study
The main objective of the study is to investigate the manner in which education and talent management can be the basis of the future of nursing education. Healthcare is evolving and nurses are facing numerous challenges that can prompt some nurses to seek employment in healthcare organizations that appreciate and recognize their work. In this regard, the paper will aim at answering some research questions that are linked as a means of realizing the aim of the study. The research questions of the study are as follows:
- What role does education and talent management play in influencing the future of nursing education in UAE?
- What is the perception of student nurses on the application of talent management practices in their education?
- What is the influence of talent management in enhancing the job satisfaction of nurses in the UAE healthcare system?
Statement of the problem
The main research problem of this study is related to dispositional employability of nurses in UAE. The work environment is prone to change and careers are becoming more fragmented in the contemporary society, therefore employees are finding it inevitable to remain attractive to their current and future employees. Therefore, nurses are finding themselves in unnecessary pressure as they try to make sure that they are relevant to the current demands of the healthcare delivery. Career advancement and the development of nursing as a profession is dynamic as there are new medical procedures being formulated frequently, and this necessitates nurses to be updated with this new medical procedures lest they become obsolete in their line of work (Mendonca, 2017). Thus, education becomes very important in equipping the nurses with new skills and knowledge that will make them relevant to the healthcare system. This research problem is relevant to the UAE setting, whereby the future of nursing education in UAE is determined the education and talent management in the respective healthcare organizations.
Rationale of the study
The rationale for this study is based on the fact that fitness for nurses has a vital significance in protection, recovery, and promotion of healthcare. Therefore, it is the duty and the responsibility of hospitals or other healthcare organization to ensure that they enhance their nurses to upgrade their fitness. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), nurses are asserted to be the fundamental pillar of a healthcare system, and lack of qualified and motivated nurses can negatively influence the quality of healthcare. Therefore, it is eminent that education and talent management of nurses has the propensity of improving nurses’ performance and improve the overall healthcare quality. Therefore, the performance of nurses depends on a spectrum of complex factors such as mastery, knowledge, merit, and motivation (Sapp Nelson, 2017).
LITERATURE REVIEW AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Nursing plays a very important role in the healthcare system today, therefore education of nurses plays a very critical part in the healthcare system. Today’s healthcare is faced with numerous challenges that can be overwhelming, and this is the reason why the quality of nursing education should be increased so as to meet these challenges as a vital aspect of improving the healthcare system in UAE. Donahue (2004) indicates that today’s nursing should shift to the direction that takes into consideration the values of human dignity, quality caring, and any humanitarian issue (Mendonca, 2017) s. Nursing education has been argued to be based carried out in a progressive manner, which implies that nursing education should not just be based on the skills acquired in college (Mendonca, 2017).
Aiken (2003) conducted a unique study that focused on nursing education, and this was based on the fact that nursing expertise was measures not only measured by educational level, but by the years of expertise and levels of critical thinking skills (Benner, 2010). The main aim of Benner (2010) was to assess the manner that nurses progress from being a novice to an expert, and she concluded that acquisition of knowledge was the basis of this progress. She theorized that an exceptional nurse is not based on the educational background, but on progress through levels of knowledge acquisitions (Benner, 2010). However, the study did not consider to focus on whether there was any correlation between the level of education and the level of expertise on an individual nurse. The term talent management has increasingly become common and has received become a point of interest from various practitioners (Painter-Morland et al., 2018). Some scholars have indicated that effective talent management is considered as a vital success factor for organizations that strive to gain competitive advantage in their respective industry since it is the process of identifying, attracting, and retaining high-potential employees (Smith, 2007). There is limited scrutiny of talent management despite its importance (Collings & Mollahi, 2009). There seems to be no consensus on the definition of talent management, and this is because the available literature do not give the ultimate scope of talent management. However, there are some studies that have tried to comprehensively define talent management. For instance, Schweyer (2004) indicate that talent management comprise of all human resources, technologies and perspectives.
Training and development is part of education than can enhance the performance of the nurses. Advanced skills have been found to be better learned in open source projects (Mehrra & Mookerjee, 2012). The skills that are learned through open source projects are argued to be more effective as compared to the skills that are done through closed source projects in an organization. The main assertion behind this concept is due to the fact that job content determines the extent of learning (Berg & Chuyung, 2008). This has prompted some studies to indicate that this approach is limited since the job content might not be sufficient in terms of offering challenges, and this is the reason why the job content for nurses should constantly be reviewed. There are factors that are becoming important determinants of nursing skills such as job enrichment and this is important in ensuring that the employees have developed the necessary skills and perspectives that are necessary to take care of themselves (Hiltrop, 2009). Moreover, the nurses that have learned from experience have a tendency of showcasing more competence as compared to new or graduate nurses (Takase, Imai and Uemura, 2015). Therefore, training and development should be designed not for promotion or position but the contribution and benefit that the employee will bring to the firm. Education is much related to talent management, and the human resource department should be on the forefront to make sure this is an organization’s practice. There is huge success accrued by hiring and training capable employees since attraction and retention of employees have become progressively important aspect of managing the human capital of the organization.
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Perspective of Talent Management
There four main perspectives in talent management that has been identified from the various literature on talent management. The first perspective focuses on forming a sound theoretical background on talent management. This perspective is associated with defining talent, the nature and essence of talent management. Talent is comprehensively defined from a conceptual framework as mastery, commitment, innate abilities, acquired skills, and knowledge that aims to achieve the unresolved results (Gallardo-Gallardo, Dries, & Gonzales-Cruz, 2013). The exclusive and inclusive approach to talent management also indicate that talent might be innate or acquires. The second approach of the first perspective focuses on talent management itself, and this is on the manner that talent can be managed in the various organizations. This aspect has numerous approaches, and the main approach is linking human resource practices to talent management (Lewis & Heckman, 2006). Studies that take this approach aim to differentiate the set of talent management practices emphasizing its strategic and future nature as well as the strategic objectives (Tarique & Schuler, 2010).
The second perspective perceives talent management as a manner that valuable competencies of talented employees are put into practice. The studies that take this viewpoint theorize that talent or ‘top performer’ of the organization. Therefore, the researchers that take this perspective focus on the exclusive approach to talent management, and majority of the researchers in this phenomenon suggest that organizations are as a strong depending on how competent their employees are (Downs & Swailes, 2013; Christensen Hughes & Rog, 2008).
The other perspectives have not being adequately covered in the available literature. The third focuses on the role of employees flow within the organization and are associated to supply and demand. Therefore, the main center of attention is on internal talent pools that is related to succession planning (Boudreau & Ramstad, 2005). The fourth perspective is centered on identification of key positions as compared to searching talents by itself. According to this perspective, the interests of an organization are the most fundamental aspect (Iles, Preece, and Chuai, 2010). For instance, after a manager has identifies the different types of talent he should enter into the category of organizational human potentials based on the potential capabilities and current preparations and they should train and educate so such job can be assumed as well as the key positions in that particular organization (Collings & Mollahi, 2009).
Application of Talent Management in the Nursing Profession
There is limited research on talent management, and there was no study that was found to focus on talent management of nurses in UAE context. However, the only studies that are available are related to the context of business enterprises. According to Aiken et al. (2003), fitness in the nursing profession is very important in the protection, recovery, and promotion of the quality of care. It is the responsibility of the hospital to help the nurses to enhance their healthy living. The WHO indicates that nurses play a central role in building a pillar for the healthcare system in each community. Moreover, the shortage of qualified nurses has a negative impact on health outcomes of the patient’s care. As Habibzadeh, Ahmadi and Vanaki (2010) explain, the main goal of nursing care is to ensure that patients recover swiftly, and this can be done through behavioral and scientific cares as well as communication with their patients.
Healthcare system is has numerous global challenges, and it does not matter whether a country is more developed. For instance, there is shortage of nurses in majority of the countries worldwide, and stress and burnout is contributing some nurses to quit the profession (Hauser, 2014). This directly affects the health outcomes of the patients, a situation that is further aggravated by the inadequate number of nurses in hospitals (Buchan, Parkin, & Schalski, 2008). As such, talent management strategies can be applied to improve and enhance the quality, mastery, fitness, and the culture in the nursing workforce (Douglas, 2013). The concept of talent management is not a new phenomenon, as it has been used to enhance the healthcare system for over one decade as it is an indicator of good health (Brightman, 2007). The main advantage of talent management in the healthcare system is that it creates a conducive environment for the recruitment, retention and development of nurses’ talents. Such nurses have vast experience as well as mastery of processes that are involved in patients’ recovery.
Schuler et al. (2011) indicated that failure to attract and retain top talent ranks as the seventh most risky factor in business today. Therefore, forming transformation that is real and sustainable is prone to continue to be propelled by skills development (through education) and talent management. Additionally, Ashton and Morton (2005) suggested that despite the numerous benefits of talent management, development of leadership is vital and this is due to the fact that majority of companies have difficulty in identifying the right individual with talent. Additionally, for a company to achieve high performance it is very important for a business to continuously refine market focus and position as well as develop distinctive capabilities of their talent that can be used to make the company gain a competitive advantage, and this is because of the enhanced talent.
Lewis and Heckman (2006) indicated that advanced job design and analysis is integral to the HR system and this ensures that an organization has the necessary human capital so that it can function in an efficient and effective manner. Developing and implementing policies and interventions that are supposed to create a supportive work environment and greater trust in employers and job satisfaction have value (Way et al., 2007). The most advantageous benefit from such a strategic intervention in the propensity for enhancing the nurses’ commitment to the healthcare organization and minimize turnover intentions.
If the healthcare is striving to retain high-quality nursing staff, management should be in a position to listen the concerns of nurse and provide a schedule that is flexible, ensure that there is adequate staffing levels, and appropriate rewards and recognition (Strachota et al., 2003; Tallman & Bruning, 2005). Retention of nurses is very important, especially due to the fact that nursing expertise is acquired from experience rather than the level of education. Moreover, in regards to training and education, a few steps towards retention enhances job satisfaction and this culminates in higher levels of quality care for the patients. Nurses that have been in the healthcare organization for a long period of time will have a great impact in conferring their skills and expertise to the newly recruited nurses (Zucker et al., 2006).
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The research design utilized in this study was quantitative in nature which included development of a questionnaire survey for the collection of data. A sample of 98 nursing students from Universities in the UAE were filled and returned the questionnaire survey, from a sample of 98 student nurses from a university in the UAE. The questions were designed to determine the extent to which the student nurses felt that education centered on talent management would hence the future education of nursing in the UAE.
A 10-items survey was designed to address the identified research questions. The survey was sent to the respondents through mail and the respondents had three weeks to fill them in and send them for data analysis. The data collected was organized and the coded for purposes of analysis. For purposes of analysis and addressing the research questions, the following research consists of the following variables:
- Independent variables;
- Talent management- which is measured by strategies of talent attraction, strategies of talent development, talent management strategies and talent success strategies.
- Education strategies- which is measured by promotion of empathy, assurance, responsiveness, professionalism and reliability.
- The dependent variable is the quality of education as measured by the perception of the level of job satisfaction by the nurses.
Based on the research question, the collected data was the analyzed to test the following hypotheses:
RQ: What role does talent management play in influencing the future of nursing education in UAE?
H1: Talent management plays a significant role in influencing the future of nursing education in UAE.
H2: Talent management does not play a significant role in influencing the future of nursing education in UAE.
RQ: What is the perception of student nurses on the application of talent management practices in their education?
H1: Student nurses have positive attitudes towards the application of talent management practices in nursing education.
H2: Student nurses have negative attitudes towards the application of talent management practices in nursing education.
RQ: What is the influence of talent management in enhancing the job satisfaction of nurses in the UAE healthcare system?
H1: Talent management has significant influence on the future of nursing education in UAE healthcare system.
H2: Talent management has no significant influence on the future of nursing education in UAE healthcare system.
The analysis of the data was measured based on the variables; talent management strategies, education strategies and their effect on the quality of education. All variables were measured in a Likert Scale of strongly agree (1) to strongly disagree (5). The collected data was analyzed using version 24 of the SPSS software. Data from the recorded results of the questionnaire survey was used to analyze the distribution of the participants’ demographic characteristics, and then multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the two dependent variables; talent management strategies, education strategies and the quality of education, in order to determine how education and talent management impacts the future of nursing education in the UAE. The Pearson Chi-Square analysis was also used to analyze the relationship between the quality of education and talent management strategies and education strategies. The statistical analysis using these tools was grounded on the aforementioned research questions, and the same structure was used in the presentation of the study results.
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FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
From the demographic data of the respondents, the percentage of male and female participants was highly distribution with 37 percent females (n=36) and 63 percent male (n= 62). Majority of the student nurses were aged between 19 to 35 years and did only had a limited nursing experience of less than 2 years experienced during their practicum.
The role of talent management in influencing the future of nursing education in UAE
A Pearson Chi-Square tests was conducted to test the first hypothesis by examining the relationship between talent management strategies and the quality of education in the UAE. The results of the analysis are depicted in Table 1 below.
Table 1: Talent management strategies vs. quality of nursing education
|Value||df||Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)|
|N of Valid Cases||99|
The results of the analysis demonstrate that there is a significant relationship between the implementation of talent management strategies and the quality of education in the UAE. Given the low level of the significant P value, the relationship between the two variables is significant. The result confirms the hypothesis that talent management plays a significant role in influencing the future of nursing education in UAE.
Perception of student nurses on the application of talent management practices in their education
To examine the attitudes of the respondents towards the application of talent management practices in their education, the means and standard deviations were examined. In Table 2, the mean of 3.95 talent management implied that that the student nurses had high expectations that the implementation of talent management practices would significantly improve the future of nursing education in the country. Other measurements of education strategies and talent management scored high, which means that the students viewed these factors as essential attributes of influencing the future of education in the country. On the same note, the quality of education is also high in terms of the mean, which is indicative of the belief by the student nurses that the implementation of the education and talent management strategies would significantly improve the future of education in the UAE.
Table 2: Perception of student nurses on the application of talent management practices in their education
|Dependent Variable: Quality of Education|
|Variable||Mean||Std. Deviation||Implementation Level|
|Talent management strategies||3.950||0.970||High|
|Talent attraction strategies||3.890||0.730||High|
|Talent development strategies||3.930||0.960||High|
|Talent succession strategies||3.750||0.580||High|
The results of this analysis confirmed the alternative hypothesis that student nurses have positive attitudes towards the application of talent management practices in nursing education. This is because the high rate of the measurements of the dependent variables demonstrates a positive attitude and a belief that education and talent management had a positive influence on the future of the quality of nursing education.
The influence of talent management on job satisfaction of nurses in the UAE healthcare system
A regression analysis was performed on the two variables; talent management strategies and the quality of nursing education in order to determine the extent to which talent management influences the future of job satisfaction in the medical sector in the UAE. Table 3 below demonstrates the results of the analysis.
|Table 3: Relationship between talent management and job satisfaction|
|Dependent Variable: Quality of Education|
|Source||Type III Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
|a. R Squared = .084 (Adjusted R Squared = .075)|
The results of this analysis confirms the first hypothesis that talent management has significant influence on the future of nursing education in UAE healthcare system.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Retention of the nurses is very important and this is because of the expertise and skills that they have acquired. This type of nurses are have immense expertise that has been acquired through numerous years of experience, therefore they guarantee patient quality care. Selection of appropriate nurses is a very crucial process of ensuring that the patient have received the quality care that they deserve. Moreover, the new recruited nurses are supposed to be under the care of these experienced nurses that have enormous expertise. Thus, recruitment and maintaining qualified and worthy nursing workforce plays a vital role in patient satisfaction and hospital performance. This implies that placement should be done in a proper position that fits the interests, abilities, personality, and vales of an individual. This will avoid immense burnout and stress, which is sometime attributed to turnover among talented nursing. Therefore, it is very important for the healthcare system stakeholders in the UAE to make sure that talent management is prioritized as a means of enhancing quality care.
The future of nursing in the UAE lies on the manner that healthcare organization will embrace the concept of talent management. Retention of nurses with enormous expertise is very important, and this is because they can pass the knowledge to the nurses that have been recruited from the nursing school. Experience is very vital in the medical field, and labor turnover keeps on increasing the quality of healthcare can be compromised. Therefore, as conceptualized in the literature of this study on talent management realm, there is a great importance for a healthcare organizations to identify the talented nurses and ensure that they have the utmost job satisfaction (Singh & Sharma, 2015).
The findings of the study have indicated that talent management in the nursing is at its infancy stage in the UAE, and there is an importance in making sure that it becomes a reality. The nursing leadership in a hospital should ensure that they involve the maximum known talents in their selection at the time of recruitment so at to be helpful to for the nurses in the various sections. However, it should be noted that the career path of nursing is very different from other careers, and this is because the career path of nursing might not be specified from the beginning. The nursing career is such that it should be specified from the beginning for the nurses, and this implies that nurses should work in places that have the highest proportion in line with their talent based on needed talents and professional qualification. The rationale behind this assertion as deduced from the research is that the cost of unqualified nurses can breed irreparable humanistic and economic damages (Ingram and Glod, 2016). Talent management is vital in ensuring that there is job satisfaction is achieved, and that there is an increased opportunity for learning and educating the new nurses that are being recruited. Therefore, the healthcare system in UAE should ensure that thy have employed mechanisms and frameworks that make it possible for the various hospitals to manage talent.
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