Ethical Issues on Abortion


An abortion terminates a pregnancy by eliminating the fetus from the womb. Abortion’s legal, moral, and ethical ramifications are widely debated. The first is pro-life. The supporters oppose abortion because they concur that a baby or fetus is a human with the claim to live. The second one is pro-abortion. All parties in the deliberation should be informed that any discussion of termination that includes reasoning and refutations demonstrates a broad conceptual dichotomy concerning ethical opinions on abortion (Buye, 2021). Typically, women deserve the freedom to decide what happens to their bodies. The arguments for and against abortion have been summed up in two ethical theories and principles explaining each group’s reasoning.

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Ethical Theories

Deontological ethics has a different perspective on “human nature” or the core of humanity. This viewpoint holds that every individual is a type of supernatural creation. “In the likeness and resemblance of God” is how all people were made (Ştefan, 2014). Everybody should unreservedly embrace the blessing of life. Besides, every human being has the absolute right to life. No person has the right to end any human life. In these contexts, abortion is a transgression as it goes against the order of the universe, the divine order. The pro-life reasoning is that the fetus’ right to exist should be safeguarded at all costs since the unborn are innocent, fragile, and vulnerable (Ştefan, 2014). Since the pro-life position holds that human life begins at conception and permitting abortions encourages feticide, it is dedicated to the notion that human life is valued from the start.

The arguments for and against abortion begin with both premises independently acknowledged or denied by either side. It concerns the condition of the fetus. Abortion supporters hold that a fertilized egg is not a human being. Since no one on either side could create a set of unflinching justifications that were unquestionably true and thus adopted unanimously, the debates are far from over. The absolutist pro-choice viewpoint contends that abortions are morally acceptable and ought to be carried out, provided that they are safe (Ştefan, 2014). This reasoning assumes that a pregnant woman’s rights come before any other liberties (such as the fetus’s rights). Hence, the female has the option to decide whether or not to get an abortion. They also argue that other factors, such as the survivability of the baby, should not be considered. This approach also claims that a pregnant woman’s body belongs to her and that she can exercise authority over it.

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Ethical Principles That Bring About Dilemmas

A woman enters an agreement with her embryo when she participates in consensual intercourse, refuses to use contraception, and becomes pregnant. Additionally, the principles embrace the idea that the unborn has a claim to life and that the woman should not make decisions on the fetus’ behalf. The woman has the right to make the best decisions for her body and herself. The fetus is a portion of the mother’s body. While every individual has the option to make decisions, the mother can also decide on the fetus’ behalf, provided they are made in the embryo’s best interests (Badruddin, 2016). According to proponents, every woman must be able to make her own pregnancy-related decisions.

Termination of pregnancy has terrible physical and mental impacts as well as lifetime complications. Contrarily, safe abortions do not harm a woman’s health. While pro-abortion activists claim that, like other intrusive and operative operations, abortion is a process that, when carried out correctly by adhering to all medical standards and aseptic protocols, does not pose a risk to the patient’s health, this claim is false (Badruddin, 2016). However, unlawful termination is hazardous to women’s health.

If a woman engages in sexual activity to become pregnant, the fertilized egg has a right to develop to full term. It indicates the moment of willing and deliberate conception is when the birthright is finalized. The argument put up by opponents is that because a developing infant has a soul from the moment of conception, abortion is a form of murder. Several literary sources support the soul’s admission into the fetus at various times (Badruddin, 2016). The pro-life movement maintains that the embryo is a human with rights and that no one should infringe on those rights.

In summary, the crucial Pro-life verse Pro-choice debate is a contentious topic that still evokes ethical concerns. As it draws from every sphere of moral evaluation, politics, law, religion, and ethics, this complicated issue presents a dilemma for biological ethicists. Both sides of the puzzle hold fervent convictions. Healthcare practitioners must respect pregnant women’s autonomy, the embryo, and pregnancy termination reasons. Still, the liberty and integrity of the pregnant woman are at the center of the abortion debate. Also, a fetus is killed during an abortion. It is essential to rationally and selflessly settle the abortion presumption. The rationale of the arguments in favor of and supporting abortion would have one believe that the life of the mother, father, or child might permit and legitimize abortion to save a life. Yet, abortion is typically morally repugnant and obscenely unjustified.

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  1. Badruddin, S. (2016). Abortion and ethics. Journal of Clinical Research & Bioethics, 07(06).
  2. Buye, R. (2021). Abortion and ethical considerations: Ethical aspects and prerequisites for abortion in Uganda. Abortion and Ethical Considerations.
  3. Ştefan, I. (2014). Arguments for and against abortion in terms of teleological and deontological theories. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 149, 927–935.
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