Exercise and Diet Program for a Patient with T2DM

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In diabetic individuals sugar levels are poorly controlled as the body is producing inadequate insulin or there is insulin resistance. Being overweight or obese increases the risk of developing Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus (T2DM) complications which include problem with eyes, kidney, the cardiovascular and nervous system(Aguiar, Morgan, Collins, Plotnikoff, & Callister, 2014).The primary goal is attaining and maintaining normal blood sugar, cholesterol, lipid, and blood pressure to prevent the occurrence of complications associated with T2DM.The goals for achieving a healthy lifestyle for Mr. John will entail placing him on a good diet that is free of fats, and low calories intake daily. This will be coupled with exercises which enable to keep his body in check. The goals are set to prevent obesity and reduction of weight as increased weight heighten glucose resistance. A specialized diet will be used coupled with exercises to attain a set weight by the end of a month during a checkup. By the end of the month, Mr. John should have lost an average of 4-8 lbs. (Pounds). Therefore, the weekly goals will be to lose 1-2 lbs. Weighing on a weekly basis will be advantageous in monitoring the progress to realizing the monthly goal.  Since he has hypertension, the exercises should begin at supervised cardiac rehabilitation program. 

Food guidelines

Mr. John should adopt to eating regular meals that involve breakfast, lunch, and dinner. In case he feels hunger in between, he should take a fruit or diet yoghurt. Every meal should contain starchy foods (carbohydrates) such as rice, cereals, bread or potatoes. The listed carbohydrate are preferred as they have a low glycaemic index which means the glucose release rate from these foods is low (Umpierre, 2011). The intake of sugary and fat food should be reduced. Fruits and vegetables should be eaten every day. On a weekly basis, he should take fish twice, and it should be composed of white fish and oily fish. The oily fish has polyunsaturated fat known as omega three which has protective effects on the heart. Food containing unsaturated fats should be used as compared to one have saturated fats. Unsaturated fats are vital in lowering blood cholesterol while saturated fats accelerate the level of cholesterol in the body. The intake of raw salt and processed food should as well be reduced. Alcohol intake should be avoided if possible or reduced intake by not taking more than five standard drinks in one sitting or more than 17 standard drinks weekly (Aguiar, Morgan, Collins, Plotnikoff, & Callister, 2014).  

Exercises

Considering that Mr. John has a case of hypertension it is integral that exercises be well regulated to prevent interfering with his heart. Aerobic and resistance training should be used (“What We Recommend,” 2017). Aerobic exercises are essential as they aid the body in using insulin while resistance training makes the body sensitive to insulin. He should not go two days without exercising.  The aerobic exercises should begin from moderate to intensity and should be done a minimum of 150 minutes weekly. On a daily basis, he should walk a minimum of 30 minutes. Other aerobic exercises which he should include are jogging, swimming and cycling (Aguiar, Morgan, Collins, Plotnikoff, & Callister, 2014). Resistance exercise should be done at least twice a week in inclusion with aerobic exercise. These exercises will involve using resistance bands, push-ups, sit-ups, and squats. 

There are numerous benefits associated with losing weight such as diabetic condition will be under control, improved mobility, lower blood pressure, reduced cholesterol levels, low risks of heart diseases and reduced stress on joints (Umpierre, 2011). The check up at the end of the month will involve looking at reduced weight, measuring blood pressure, cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, kidney review, checking eyes and feet and BMI (body mass index). Exercises should not be more strenuous, and meals should not be skipped to prevent cases of hypoglycaemia which is low blood sugar levels.

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  1. Aguiar, E., Morgan, P., Collins, C., Plotnikoff, R., & Callister, R. (2014). Efficacy of interventions that include diet, aerobic and resistance training components for type 2 diabetes prevention: a systematic review with meta-analysis. International Journal Of Behavioral Nutrition And Physical Activity, 11(1), 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-11-2
  2. Umpierre, D. (2011). Physical Activity Advice Only or Structured Exercise Training and Association With HbA1cLevels in Type 2 Diabetes. JAMA, 305(17), 1790. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2011.576
  3. What We Recommend. (2017). American Diabetes Association. Retrieved 28 March 2017, from http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/fitness/types-of-activity/what-we-recommend.html
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