Table of Contents
Nuclear weapons have been described as the most vital armaments in the entire world. Research indicates that a single nuclear weapon has the capability of destroying a large area. Based on prior observations, the nuclear explosions have caused massive deaths and property loss in affected areas. The use Nuclear weapons has led to the destruction of natural environment, and hence exposing human beings to health threats due to protracted climatic issues. In the world’s history, nuclear weapons have been utilized in some occurrences whose outcome affected millions of individuals. A major happening is the bombing that occurred in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the year 1945. The bombings were described as fatal and their effects are visible up to date. Currently, scientists have conducted more than 2000 nuclear tests and it is estimated that there are 22,000 nuclear weaponries globally. This remains a major threat to global security and it has prompted the formation of the United Nation Commissions. The main objective of the UN commission is to eradicate the creation of nuclear weapons. In 1946, the UN Congress meeting created a commission with an aim of resolving issues related to the creation of atomic energies worldwide. The commission also focused on developing proposals to control the extent into which the atomic energy is utilized. The UN has emphasized on the dismissal of national mobilizations of atomic armaments and any other weapons that can result to massive destruction.
The UN has encouraged the signing of treaties, which focused on nuclear disarmament. These treaties included the NPT Treaty, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Non-Proliferation Treaty is a universal treaty intended to deter the spread of atomic armaments and techniques of creating the weapons. The NPT aims at promoting the diplomatic usage of the atomic energy. It also ensures that the disarmament policies are established. Over the past years, the treaty has been termed as a requisite binder in the bilateral treaty, which aims at promoting disarmament in the nuclear-weapon states. It is notable that diverse states have endorsed the NPT compared to any other disarmament agreement. The Non-Proliferation Treaty has developed defense systems through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This ensures that the Treaty supports diplomatic nuclear technology and accessibility to technology by the States parties. The NPT Treaty focuses on global collaboration by preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. This has been achieved through nonproliferation, diplomatic use of nuclear energy between the states and disarmament policies.
The Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) has accentuated on legal commissioning of the international ban of nuclear energy testing especially in states with developed nuclear weapons. The CTBT has developed measures to ban nuclear test explosions with an aim of ensuring that the disarmament policies are achieved globally. The CTBT has also discouraged the efforts of states with less developed nuclear weapons proficiency from improving their nuclear weapon abilities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) focuses on endorsing the study and concrete solicitation of atomic energy for peaceful use globally. This is achieved through the creation of measures, which ensure that the nuclear weapons are not utilized for military purposes. Inspectors from IAEA commission usually visit various nuclear institutions in bid to confirm the whereabouts of the nuclear materials in their possession. Such measures have ensured nonviolent use of the nuclear technology by different states.
The nuclear weapons policies of the recognized nuclear powers
The major Nuclear power states that control various nuclear armaments include, Russia, the United States, the UK, China, North Korea, India, Pakistan, Iran, and Israel. Research indicates that the USA and Russia have an estimate of 93% of the overall nuclear weapons. However, with the development of the existing START treaty, Russia and the US have been motioned to minimize the number of weapons they possess. It is notable that five out of the nine countries possessing the nuclear weapons have acquired a legal status. These include China, the UK, Russia, the USA, and France. In the recent past, it has been stated that the five countries are focusing on the deployment of advanced atomic armaments. The Nuclear-Weapon States (NWS) entails of the five major nations, Russia, France, the United States, China and United Kingdom,. These states possess atomic weapons legally based on the NPT policies. The treaty has validated the states nuclear weapons, although it emphasizes that they are not supposed to create or develop the weapons.
In the year 1945, the United States of America carried out their first nuclear test explosion by dropping major atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. These explosion had a major effect on the cities characterized by a massive loss of lives and destruction of properties. The effects of the nuclear explosion in both cities have been experienced up to date. However, four years after the release of the USA nuclear bombs, the Soviet Union also carried out their first nuclear test. Eventually other countries including the UK, France, and China followed the course and carried out their nuclear tests. In bid to hinder the development of nuclear weapon ranks by the countries, the USA and other states developed a common policy, which resulted to the formation of the nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).
However, some nations such as Israel, India, and Pakistan never participated in the signing of the NPT treaty and they still have their nuclear weapons. In 1991, Iraq developed a confidential nuclear program led by Saddam Hussein. In 2003, North Korea cancelled their participation from the NPT treaty and they have focused on testing their nuclear weapons. Libya and Iran have also indulged in secret nuclear activities an act that infringes the NPT and CTBT policies. The policies creating a nuclear-weapon-free zone are mainly focused on the activities of the main legal nuclear-powered armament nations recognized by the NPT. The policies tend to be legitimately binding. The policies indicate that the nuclear armament states should not issue threats of using the atomic weaponries against the other states. The statements of non-use of nuclear weapons are also described as negative security pledges. In several occurrences, the five nuclear weapon nations have signed and sanctioned various protocols. This ensures that they have the privilege to utilize the nuclear-powered weapons in certain situations against other member countries.
In 1996, the United States signed a protocol for the African nuclear-free zone indicating that they would uphold their right to respond to any impending threats. This indicates that they would possibly use nuclear weapons or any other chemical weapons to retaliate. There are diverse basic policies of the Nuclear-Weapon powers. The formed treaties are supposed to remain relevant and in use indeterminately. However, the member nations have the option of withdrawing and ending the treaty commitments at any given period. The treaties cannot be subjected to conditions by the nations without Nuclear powers. Research indicates that all the member countries adopt comprehensive precautions by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This ensures that the states do not pursue any illegal nuclear activities.
How Deterrence and Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones fosters peace and stability
Nuclear deterrence is termed as one of the best ways of initiating peace globally. It described as the ability of a certain state to digress from any aspects that create war. The deterrent strategy usually renders it redundant for a country to indulge in wars for the sake of improving its security. The cold war has been used as a major example of how nuclear deterrence resulted to a peaceful era. During this period, two nuclear power nations did not attack each other, but rather they learnt to adjust to each other nuclear influences. The Nuclear nations also played a role in aiding other countries to improve their nuclear powers, hence fostering peace between the Nations. It is evident that despite the total number of nuclear-powered nations, the nuclear sphere usually becomes bearable when they exemplify deterrent acts. Nuclear deterrence tends to foster peace between warring nations since the possibility that a nation can use the nuclear weapons it possess to strike back may hinder a rival from confronting them.
A Nuclear-Free Zone is described as a certain area whereby countries compel themselves not to indulge in any nuclear weapons creation and testing. The treaties of the Nuclear-Weapon free Zones usually remain in power indeterminately, although the nations have a free will to withdraw from the treaty. The Nuclear-Weapon free zone is important since it enhances the maintenance of peace as individuals usually avoid indulging in the manufacture of nuclear weapons since they are aware of the harm it causes to human beings and the environment. It is important since individuals do not feel threatened or in distress since chances of nuclear wars and terrorism are minimal. The Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones have a common goal of upholding nuclear control and also merge universal initiatives of accomplishing peace and security.
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Differences between regulation, prohibition, and eradication of Nuclear Weapons
It is important to note that there is a major difference between the control, proscription, and abolition of nuclear weapons. According to the NPT Treaty, the nuclear-powered weaponries have been termed as entitlements that have been conferred to a certain nations. The security of the entire world is based on the protection of the atomic weapon. However, it has been argued these armaments cannot be banned and the perspective of nuclear disarmament cannot be fulfilled in majority of the nuclear weapon countries. This can be carried out by certain military officials through a defined chain of command in bid to ensure that decisions are reached in the deployment of nuclear weapons.
In majority of the Nuclear-powered countries, there are certain command and control systems, which authorize the use of the weaponry during a crisis. These systems also have the initiative of hindering unauthorized use of the atomic armaments. The control of Nuclear weapons can be described as the perspective of guaranteeing crisis steadiness and deterring attack from other states. The control of Nuclear armaments refers to the regulations of activities and procedures performed by the nuclear states. The prohibition of Nuclear weapons refers to the hindering of development, hoarding, and the use of nuclear weapons in a state. The major intention of prohibition is to ensure that there is nonuse and non-possession of nuclear weapons. This ensures that there are no effects caused by events such as nuclear explosions. Prohibition of nuclear weapons has the main objective of eventual abolition of the weapons. However, a major challenge of prohibition is the issue of observing and authenticating compliance of the nuclear weapon nations. Some activities to enhance the nuclear weapons cannot be easily detected by the authorities prohibiting nuclear weapons and hence more harmful weapons tend to be created.
The elimination of Nuclear weapons refers to the destruction of the functionality of all the nuclear weapons globally. This may include the disassembling of the nuclear weapons. This initiative minimizes the chances of the nuclear weapons being used by the nuclear states against each other. The elimination of nuclear weapons may also include halting the production of bomb materials and inspecting the nuclear power plants and industries to ensure there is no production.
The UN should focus on prioritizing the abolition of nuclear weapons. Judging from the past occurrences, it is evident that nuclear weapons have caused great harm to humanity as a whole. Due to radiation issues, human beings are suffering from diseases and deaths many years after the prior explosion of the nuclear weapons. The elimination of nuclear energies is the only solution to avoid future calamities. It is important to note that despite the fact that a nuclear weapon may never explode in future, there are diverse effects that occur because of the creation, testing and launching of the nuclear weapons.
On the issue of security, nuclear weapons have posed a prevalent threat to individuals globally. They have resulted to mistrust and fear among nations. Terrorists have taken the advantage of the nuclear weapons to create terror and mass destructions in various countries. Despite the fact that several nuclear weapons have been destroyed after the cold war, there is no valid justification of maintaining them. Many nations have focused on the perspective of nuclear deterrence without determining the negativities, which arise of the process. Nuclear weapons are instruments of national and global insecurities and they should be eliminated. It is evident that with nuclear weapons, they are never in safe hands, and the proprietorship of nuclear-powered armaments by one state makes it desirable to the others. The nuclear weapon initiatives have also diverted the public funds from health care, disaster management, and education. The nuclear weapon countries spend billions annually in bid to maintain and improve their nuclear armories.
Current prospects for complete global nuclear disarmament
The UN has the initiative of achieving the perspective of global nuclear disarmament. It has remained a vital and urgent objective that needs to be accomplished. Currently, it is estimated that there are more than 15,000 nuclear-powered armaments in the entire world. The nations that possess the nuclear weaponries have developed initiatives to fund the nuclear weapons for the longest period. Several individuals live in states that have the weapons whereas others are members of the alliances. Presently, there are major drops in the quantity of nuclear-powered armaments released compared to the Cold War period.
The issue of nuclear deterrence has persisted as an attribute of security policies for the Nuclear-weapons nations and their allies. However, the pending security threats cannot be brushed off as an excuse for the persistent reliance on nuclear weapons. It is important for the countries to find peaceful measures of settling their disputes. In July 2017, the Treaty of Prohibition of Nuclear weapons was instituted and this acts as an initiative to contribute towards the end of the nuclear weapons. The main perspective of the treaty is to emphasis on the jeopardies posed by the prevalent use of atomic weapons. It also aims at creating awareness concerning the disastrous threats posed by the use of nuclear weapons. The adoption of the treaty creates a new dawn globally for the nuclear disarmament campaigns. Global nuclear disarmament should be encouraged as the world requires peace not conflicts. It is notable that a countries stability and security creates a peaceful environment for individuals. The emphasis on complete global disarmament is the best initiative to minimize the production of nuclear weapons. However, in order for this to be achieved, the Nuclear power nations should negotiate and reach agreements.
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