Healthcare Ethics

Subject: Health Care
Type: Process Analysis Essay
Pages: 4
Word count: 1101
Topics: Medical Ethics, Vaccine

Cost Effectiveness

Preventive measures may help the business by reducing the individual demands on the healthcare system hence reducing the cost burden on the system. Major care that could be prevented by undertaking preventive measures tends to be more expensive. Efficient use of resources may be experienced instead of using high-technology treatments for existing conditions. This may eventually lead to a low and efficient healthcare provision to the business of health care. 

Quality Suffers

Poor medical services may result if preventive measures are not adopted because many people will fall sick and strain the service providers. Quality health care is key in any health organization and therefore adopting a preventive health care policy may improve the general healthcare quality within the community served by the healthcare organization.  Treatment normally leads to overutilization of healthcare services as compared to preventive services.  The business of health care will therefore have their resources not overworked hence providing the space to offer quality healthcare to the few who would go for treatments. 




Ag, Chief Administrator



City, State, Zip


Dear Sir

(Organization) is pleased to present this proposal for your review as we look forward to partnering with you in providing preventive cardiovascular healthcare in the next two years. The project is intended to reduce health barriers and health disparities in heart health. Funding will help in establishing the project because its sustainability will be through billing of services through third party payers.  

Project goals and objectives include the provision of more education on heart disease including carrying out health fairs, coronary risk screenings and creating awareness on other heart risk topics. The project will also provide activities geared towards curtailing the risk for heart disease by coming up with a range of exercises for more than 200 community residents.  Further, the project will strive to assist various community residents in developing a plan for a healthy lifestyle through outreach, follow-up education and individualized plan that can prevent heart-related risks. 

Apparently, heart-related risk has been a major concern within the community but none, among the several agencies has had a primary mission of addressing it. It is, therefore, an important activity that will see many people within the community appreciate because of its intended benefits. The organization has had more than 8 cases monthly of handling heart diseases’ related patients.  This has called for the need of coming up with preventive measures that can see the heart-related diseases or disorders reduced as much as possible.

There will be other organizations such as community churches, American Heart Association and community residents that will help in providing educational materials, mobilize residents to participate and assess the program’s success. 

This organization has successfully generated millions of dollars of in-kind donations for over 20 years. The support that has been received by the organization in its preventive projects has been because of the prudent fund’s management practices it has had for its 20-year history. Individual donors have supported 60% of its operating costs for its preventive programs. 

For this project, a projected 400 people will attend the health fair and speak to medical professionals while blood test and blood pressure test to evaluate their coronary risk factors. Outreach works will help in altering risk behaviors to ensure the project is successful. Also, the project intends to have at least 100 residents to enroll and participate in a three-month exercise program as a way of creating awareness of healthy lifestyle through exercise and proper nutrition. 

We are looking forward to a positive response from your end.


Yours faithfully

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Mandating a vaccination is ethically justifiable if it is intended for a good cause and that the program does not possess any wrong inherent or intrinsic feature.  Key ethical principles should justify mandatory vaccination such as respect for autonomy; beneficence; non-maleficence and professional virtue of “do no harm” (Barog, 2009).

It is not justifiable to mandate the HPV vaccination at this time because it touches sexual behavior which can increase sexual activity among youths thus undermining family values. The mode of transmission for HPV is through sexual activity and therefore creating sexual awareness among the youths may trigger sexual desire and premarital sexual relationships (Wiley, 2008).  Being that HPV is linked to cervical cancer, the benefits of vaccination do not warrant mandatory vaccination because mortality rate of cervical cancer is too low. Reducing the threat of cervical cancer may therefore only require a voluntary HPV vaccination because the long-term safety and effectiveness of the vaccine in the general population is not clear (Wiley, 2008). There is no public health necessity that permits mandatory HPV which has a negative economic effect because of the financial support needed. 

Nonmedical exemptions should be granted from mandated vaccinations because of the need to respect personal decisions especially if the exemption does not compromise societal defense against disease (Ortmann et al., 2016). An individual’s fundamental beliefs should be respected since they define a person’s personality. Exemptions should not only be limited to religious-based objections but extended to philosophical, personal and moral objections.  This will be significant in respecting an individuals’ identity and beliefs although it may lead to spread of a disease that would have been prevented through vaccination (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2016). Erecting some hurdles may be helpful in weeding out objectors who are taking advantage. 

Health care workers in a hospital or nursing home should get an annual influenza vaccination because it fits within the framework of constitutional powers to promote the public welfare for public health (Field, 2009). Influenza vaccination not only helps in preventing the spread of the disease to vulnerable patients but also protect the practitioners against influenza. 


Smoking has dire consequences that affect both smokers and second-hand smokers. However, banning it tends to deny an individual’s liberty since smoking is a personal decision and expression of one’s freedom (Soliman, Schottenfeld, and Boffetta, 2013). On the other hand, smoking increases the risk of death and disease to both smokers and people around the smokers. The ban should be adopted as a way of reducing heart diseases and death related to smoking (Institute of Medicine (U.S), 2010). At least, by banning smoking, both the people around the smokers and the smokers themselves are helped to live a bit longer.  There is no distinction between a hospital banning smoking outdoors on the property and a public ban smoking in all outdoor areas because they are both intended for the same purpose which is reducing the risks related to smoking.

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  1. Balog, J. E. (2009). The Moral Justification for a Compulsory Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Program. National library of medicine, 99(4), 616-622. Retrieved from
  2. Field, R. I. (2009). Mandatory Vaccination of Health Care Workers. Whose Rights Should Come First? National Library of Medicine, 34(11), 615-616, 618. Retrieved from
  3. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2010). Secondhand smoke exposure and cardiovascular effects: Making sense of the evidence. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.
  4. National Conference of State Legislatures. (2016). States with Religious and Philosophical Exemptions From School Immunization Requirements, Retrieved 11 April, 2017 from
  5. Ortmann, L. W., Barrett, D. H., Saenz, C., Bernheim, R. G., Dawson, A., Valentine, J. A., & Reis, A. (January 01, 2016). Public Health Ethics: Global Cases, Practice, and Context.
  6. Soliman, A., Schottenfeld, D., & Boffetta, P. (2013). Cancer epidemiology: Low- and middle-income countries and special populations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  7. Wiley. (2008, November 12). Mandatory HPV vaccination is unwarranted and unwise. EurekAlert. Retrieved from
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