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The coronavirus has shaken the world extensively, with almost every country feeling its wrath. However, the health sector has put efforts into slowing and preventing its spread. Nevertheless, coronavirus majorly spreads from one person to another. There are various ways that the coronavirus spreads. Coronavirus can live in the atmosphere for up to three hours. When an infected person exhales, an uninfected person inhales the same air, and then they automatically get infected. Coughing and sneezing lead to the spread of coronavirus, where particles with the virus land in another person’s mouth, eyes, or nose, and they will get infected (Moriarty et al., 2020). Transmission through touching surfaces is also widespread. Various objects can carry the virus when connected with an infected person’s hands, and once another person touches or uses them, they get infected.
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Origin of Covid-19
The coronavirus causes Covid-19, which affects the respiratory system of humans. The virus has crown-like spikes on its surface, enabling them to get attached to surfaces without being easily eroded. The first case of Covid-19 new strain, SARS-COV, was reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 (Nalbandian et al., 2021). The virus then spread worldwide, causing a global pandemic. The coronavirus is mainly found in bats, cats and camels. The virus does not cause any harm to the animals; they undergo mutations in the animals and later spreads to other animal species. Eventually, the virus spread from animals to human beings. The first Covid-19 victims contracted the SARs-COV virus at a food market in Wuhan, where they purchased meat, fish and live animals.
How the Virus Enters the Body
The coronavirus enters the body of a healthy person by mouth, eyes, and nose and directly from contaminated droplets or the virus from the hands to the face. A person can become infected after touching contaminated surfaces and their eyes, nose or mouth (Moriarty et al., 2020). After the entry of the virus, it invades the cells lining the nasal cavity and throat. The virus colonizes the nasal lining and damages healthy cells. The virus then moves to the air pathways, and mucous membranes at the back of the throat get attached to the lining, multiply and relocate to the lung tissue. The virus then spreads to other body tissues. Symptoms begin to appear to inform of headache, sore throat or cough.
Transmission of Coronavirus
A healthy person gets infected through contact with the virus. An infected person can transmit the virus even if they don’t display any symptoms. Once a person gets infected, they remain contagious and spread the virus easily. Moreover, infected people are most infectious, especially when asymptomatic (Lotfi et al., 2020). The virus spreads quickly between people in close contact, especially at conversational distance. The virus can remain suspended in the atmosphere after being ejected from an infected person in small particles after coughing or sneezing. Short-range transmission is the main transmission, as a healthy person is exposed to infectious particles suspended in the air (Moriarty et al., 2020). The infectious particles contribute to droplet transmission after coming into contact with the eyes, nose or mouth of a healthy person. The virus spreads mostly in poorly ventilated and overcrowded places where people stay longer. The infectious particles can stay suspended in the air and can move more than a conversational distance. The virus can settle on surfaces such as a solid object; once a healthy person touches the contaminated surfaces, they get infected.
How to Control the Spread of Covid-19
Covid-19 symptoms develop after some days, but the victim remains contagious. After ten days, the symptoms begin, and the person is no longer contagious. The virus mainly spreads through contaminated respiratory droplets released in the air by an infected person once they cough, sneeze or breath near a healthy person. Or when a healthy person comes into contact with infected surfaces or close contact with an infected person either by shaking hands or touching them (Moriarty et al., 2020). The spread of the virus is controlled through several strategies. First, infected people should be isolated or kept in quarantine to prevent the spread of the virus. Second, wearing masks that cover the mouth and the nose in public (Lotfi et al., 2020). Third, avoid crowded places with poor ventilation. Finally, people should wash their hands often with soap and 60 % alcohol hand sanitizer.
People at Risk and Treatment of Covid-19
The people with the highest risk of contracting Covid-19 have traveled in areas with the active spread of the virus. Those with close contact with infected people and older adults under 60 have pre-existing medical conditions or are immunosuppressed. Treatment of Covid-19 varies depending on whether the symptoms are severe (Cuevas, 2020). The treatment may include oxygen supplements, monoclonal antibodies, antiviral medications and mechanical ventilation.
The coronavirus (Covid-19) is one of the many viral diseases which cause respiratory disorders in people. Coronavirus spreads too fast, especially in crowded areas, and can easily cause death due to difficulty in breathing. One of the most successful ways to stop the spread is by getting vaccinated (Moriarty et al., 2020). Moreover, washing hands before preparing or eating food for a minimum of 20 seconds after coming into contact with a person having flu-like symptoms is critical in minimizing its spread. Face masks are also crucial in covering the nose and mouth to avoid droplets of saliva or mucus when sneezing, coughing, talking or breathing.
Furthermore, avoiding crowded places and maintaining social distancing are important in preventing the spread of the coronavirus. Using sanitizers has been highly recommended since it helps kill the virus, thus minimizing spread. It’s every person’s responsibility to follow all Covid-19 guidelines to ensure that this pandemic is eliminated.
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- Lotfi, M., Hamblin, M. R., & Rezaei, N. (2020). COVID-19: Transmission, prevention, and potential therapeutic opportunities. Clinica Chimica Acta, 508, 254-266.
- Moriarty, L. F., Plucinski, M. M., Marston, B. J., Kurbatova, E. V., Knust, B., Murray, E. L., … & Richards, J. (2020). Public health responses to Covid-19 outbreaks on cruise ships—worldwide, February–March 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69(12), 347.
- Nalbandian, A., Sehgal, K., Gupta, A., Madhavan, M. V., McGroder, C., Stevens, J. S., … & Wan, E. Y. (2021). Post-acute Covid-19 syndrome. Nature Medicine, 27(4), 601-615.