Table of Contents
The cinematography is defined as the science of motion-picture photography that is done through the recording of light or any other electromagnetic radiation. Such a process is done either electronically using image sensor or through the use of a light-sensitive material such as the film stock. Typically, the lens is used to ensure that it lays a greater focus on the light that is reflected from the objects in the real images on all the light-sensitive surface that is presented inside a camera during the process of a questioned exposure. In a digital filmmaking, there is the creation of more images from the electronic sensor that ensures that there is a production of an electric charge at each pixel that is electrically produced and stored in a video film for the purpose of subsequent display and processing (Stollery, 2009). The results of filmmaking under a photographic emulsion gives yield to a series of invisible latent images on the film stock that are chemically produced into a visible image. The images on the film stock are played back at a rapid speed and projected to a screen, thus leading to the creation of the desired illusion of motion. On the other side, cinematography finds more uses in the fields of science and business as well as for entertainment purposes and mass communication.
The process of capturing motion pictures as digital images that are used in videotapes, hard disk, and other types of flash memories can be used in making sure that the right data is collected ta the right time. Such digital data practice has now become a common practice used in most Hollywood movie that is currently shot partially or totally digital. The digital cameras use sensors to take shots that are more useful in image production. This paper examines some of the material qualities and characteristics of the equipment’s, processes and software of the digital cinema production that has influenced and shaped both the film form and style. It is true that many styles are available inclusive of the style quo which explains that it does not necessarily involve the ease and capability, but it also includes the most appropriate representations of reality.
A digital cinematography provides some aesthetic restrictions implying that a film is hard to work with as it requires great lighting set-ups. In some other cases, the camera might be vast and un-widely compared to the digital camera that is much more concerned with the high-quality capture (Manovich, 2012). However, then high-quality capture is expensive as it the recording of the material film whereby the material film must be switched every ten minutes while recording. Additionally, these restrictions have helped to define the mode of cinema for the last one hundred years ago. On the other side, digital technologies do not suffer from such limitation as recording the materials are much cheaper to free with the advent of reusable disk storage. Under digital technologies recording of the film can be extended for a longer period, cameras tend to be smaller, lighter and easier to mobilize and hide. Additionally, video requires less light for the exposure to be made and can easily be transferred to a computer and well manipulated for better modification.
There are many advantages linked to the digital filmmaking. One of these advantages is the immediate review of scenes that do not have to wait for the film to be produced at the right time. The copy that was created can easily be deleted and corrected if the film will have to be destroyed and easily pirated. Again, the permanent storage of the digital media is considered to be much cheaper as compared to the film image that is produced in the traditional way (Rockwell, 2015). However, the traditional filmmaking has many advantages like image noise, which act as a major problem of the digital camera that is of no use in matters of conventional film production. Shooting on the film makes it much easier to acquire the footage that one needs because the film wide dynamic range to produce top notch detail and exposure for the shot is highly recognized. A film that is shot in a traditional way uses a combination of mechanical and organic processes to produce images that are required. In most cases, the shot is stored in the film in a negative form, whereby; after shooting a series of images that are entirely used up in the entire role of the film, it is brought into a laboratory in the darkroom for processing. Traditional filmmaking requires expertise and education in the filmmaking industry, while cinematography production requires knowledge and the use of external lighting to ensure that all the films are shot digitally.
A person would not agree with Elliot’s central premise of producing a good digital camera image, which he claims to be just as hard if not harder than arriving at a real film photography. It does not mean necessarily mean that everyone has to enter the field of photography with his set of skills, but he needs to acquire the right skills required for the work that is ahead of him. It is much unfortunate to disagree with Marc and others as there seem to be no greater value in an image that is made through the analog route compared to a black and whole image that is made through the digital route (Meyer, 2005). It simply implies that a person who has the not capability of making fairly good images through the use of film will not be considered to instantaneously create a memorable image through the use of digital equipment. Some people have argued that that the ability to skillfully use PS is much more complicated than using the tools available in the analog darkroom. Certainly, there are they who continue to think that editing in PS is simply a matter of pressing a few presets, making a mask and the printing the whole film. Moreover, more knowledge is required to ensure that digital filmmaking emerges to be of greater use and that modern images are well filmed and appear much different from the traditional film made models. Having come from the analog LF world of using 8*10, staining the developers, contact prints, it is possible to tell that making a high-quality digital black and white print is much more than perfunctory steps that many people suggests.
The ability of the digital capture to shoot long takes without the motion that limits lighting set-ups which are in most cases conducive to the use of non-actors who tend to benefit from the long, multiple and flexible takes in capturing many performances. Some digitally shot bubble have the ability to make the use of non-professional actors to shoot a plenitude of material with many, slightly different, improvised turns under use of few cameras. The work is referred to as Bubble as the producer can move from one place to another while taking the original stories that were created (Strgar, 2016).
Multimedia as Primitive Digital Cinema
In a commercial cinema, there are new technologies that are employed for use in solving technical problems that, might be arising. These technologies that have contributed much to the style and form of the digital cinematography’s includes; Composition, mapping, paint retouching and the 3-D animations (Van Rijsselbergen et al., 2012). Again, frames of the digital film are hand painted to ensure that wires are removed that were earlier used in supporting an actor during the shooting process. To make the film style and the form appear more modern, a flock of birds is added to the landscape; a city is filled with crowds of simulated extras to make it seem more modern. Despite the fact that many Hollywood related movies involve digitally manipulated scenes, the use of computers in the manipulation of such scenes is carefully hidden (Digital Cinema Magazine Becomes Digital Cinematography, 2005).
Apparently, the commercial narrative cinema still holds on to the classical reality style where most of the images that are produced function as unretouched photographic records of some other events that took place in front of the camera. The digital cinematographers refuse to give up on different cinema-effect (Stavre, 2013). According to Christina Metz’s penetrating analysis that was made in the 1970s, this kind of effect depends upon the narrative form while the reality effect, cinema architectural arrangements are all working together in making the film more sensible. As he continues, Metz wonders whether in the future non-narrative films may become more numerous if such activities happen from time to time. Metz suggests that a film will not require manufacturing its reality effect. On the other side, both electronic and digital media have already brought about such kind of transformation in the digital cinematographers. In the 1980snew cinematic forms emerged which were in the linear narrative as they were exhibited in the television or a computer screen rather than in a movie theater. Such an impact evidenced that the upcoming digital cinematographers were starting to influence the form and the style of filmmaking in producing cinematic realism (Raibow, 1996). Some of these forms are inclusive of the music video. The music video came into existence exactly at the time when the electronic video effects devices were entering edition studios. Most importantly, it was at such a time when the electronic video often made sure to incorporate narrative within them even though they were not linear narratives from the start until the end as they mostly relied on film (video). The video worked to change them beyond the norms of traditional cinematic realism, and this ensured that the manipulation of images through hand painting and image processing that as hidden in the Hollywood cinema was made to open on the television screens (Solman, 2001). Similarly, the construction of an image from heterogeneous sources is not subordinated to the goal of photorealism, but rather it functions as an aesthetic strategy. The genre of music has been a laboratory for exploring numerous possibilities of manipulating photographic images that are made possible through the use of the computer in film production. The numerous points that exist in the space between the 2-D and the 3-D, cinematography, and painting, as well as coordinating the photographic realism tend to be a living textbook for the digital cinema production.
The CD-ROMs arrived at a new visual language unintentionally at the same time trying its best to emulate the traditional cinema. Due to the particular hardware limitations that were evident at such times, the CD-ROMs invented a different kind of cinematic language in which different strategies such as discrete motion, superimposition and loops moved the image presentation (Thomson, 2005) Such kind of a language synthesized cinematic illusionism and even the graphic collage had the characteristics of heterogeneity and discontinuity. It was when cinema and animation went their separate ways that the graphic and photographic divorced up until when computer screen was introduced. Due to the combination of the techniques of cinema in the nineteenth century and that of the current century, they have led to the formation of a new hybrid language in the filmmaking industry (Roth, 2009).
The loop and Spatial Montage
Evidently, there are some artists who have approached these strategies not as limitations, but as the source of new cinematic possibilities. A good example is the Little-Movie91994) and The Flora petrinsularis by Jean-Lousi Boissier’s (1993). In the nineteenth century, most of the pro-cinematic devices were based on short loops, but several changes were made as the seventh art began to mature. At such a time it banished the loop to the low-art realms of the instructional film both the pornographic peep show and the animated cartoon show. In contrast to such, the narrative cinema has avoided repetition of the modern Western fictional forms, in general, ensures that it put forwards the notion of human existence regarding linear progression under numerous unique events (Thomson Unveils Services and Products Spanning Digital Film Making, 2005). Most of the early digital movies tend to share the same limitations of storage as those produced back in the nineteenth century under the pro-cinematic devices. It was due to such reasons that the loop playback function was built into Quick Time interface, thus making sure that it gives the same weight to the VCR-style of the playback function (Robinson, 2004). In the modern quick time’s movies, they can be played forwards, backward or even looped according to the wishes of the viewer. The loop contributed much to the digital cinematographer as it gave birth to the cinema and the computer programming. Programming is very useful in digital film production as it entails alteration of the linear flows of data through control structures such that the loop can controls all these structures accordingly (Baytech Cinema, 2003). Once the computer is changed from its usual interface to follow the execution of a typical computer program, then it will imply that the computer reveals itself to be another version of Ford’s Factory with a loop conveyor. The use of Flora petrinsularis has ensured that the digital cinematographer changes the form and style of film through the realization of some possibilities that are contained in the loop form, and in turn suggesting a new temporal aesthetic for a digital camera (Martin, 2009). The CD-ROM is based on Rousseau’s Confessions and at the same time opens with a white screen that contains a numbered list required for the film production. Once a person clicks on each item, it implies that one will be directed to a screen that contains two frames cited side by side, thus showing the same video loop and slightly offset from each other in time (Kim et al., 2009). This implies that all the images that appear in the left frame will appear in the left frame and the whole procedure will continue repeating itself. Such a wave soon becomes more materialized as a click on one frame takes us to another screen that contains lots of rhythmically vibrating water surface. As such clicks continue the viewer become the editor but not in a traditional way, but in a more modern way. Additionally, the loop which structures Flora petrinsularis on some levels tends to be a metaphor for all the human desire that could never have been attained in achieving the desired film resolution. As Boissier demonstrates in the field of grass one will have a clear idea of the minimal conditions that are necessary for the creation of the impression of the film reality.
Consequently, Steven Neale has given a clear description of how early the file demonstrated its authenticity. Such an act was done by making sure that the film represented the changing nature and what was lacking in such photographs was only the wind which was not flowing as required to portray the index of realism, nature, and movement. The subject of ironic and melancholic simulation is described in the digital cinematographer as Boissiers movement of nature (Anderson, 2002). Through making sure that the digital cinematographers feature key moments in the history of cinema evidence that the high influence of film style and form from a logical subject view. As more advances are evident in the digital cinematographer, the medium of the film becomes the message as it looks more than the content being portrayed in the press technology (Jacobson, 2015).
Apparently, the digital cinematographers have elaborated various sophisticated techniques of montage between different images that are used in replacing each other from time to time (Jackman, 2015). Again, the digital cinematographers give the evidence of spatial montage between simultaneously co-existing images that were not well explored in traditional filmmaking processes. Developing narrative through some short video clips is evident in the digital cinematographers implying that the form and style of filmmaking have changed to make the content clearer and easily understood by many as it is much smaller than the size of a computer screen. Through doing that, some clips can be placed on the screen of equipment at once, thus making editing work much easier (Blumenthal-Barby, 2015). At some other times, all the clips might be paused and only one left to play while at other times, about two to three clips can play at once. Once the narratives activate different parts of the screen, the montage in time will create time for the montage in space. Therefore, it is through the creation of a new dimension that the position of the images in space will have a closer relation to each other. Also, it means that as the images fail to replace each other and remain on the screen throughout the movie, then each new image will tend to be juxtaposed not only with one image that preceded but with other images that were present on the screen. The logic of replacement and the characteristics of cinema gives way to the logic of addition and coexistence of various films. In the digital production, time becomes spatialized as well as distributed over the surface of the screen (Burelli and Yannakakis, 2015). At such a time, nothing is forgotten, and nothing can be erased; thus, the digital cinematographers are referred to be more advanced compared to the legendary cinematographers. Just like a computer are used in the accumulation of unlimited texts, messages, data and notes the Spatial Montage is used to accumulate events and images as they are processed through the film narrative. In contrast, cinema screens that functions as a record of perception, the computer screens operate as a record of memory (Heyer, 2008).
Digital cinematographers ensure that images are portrayed in different sizes and their appearance and disappearance in different screen parts without any apparent order. Therefore, the computer screen is referred to as a space of endless possibilities. The computer contains numerous images and multiple narrative paths, and all that remains is to reveal some of them in the digital filmmaking (Business Editors/High-Tech and E.W. 2000).
In the twentieth century, the digital cinematographers have played two major roles at once. One of the roles includes; its involvement in media technology where it played the role of capturing and storing a visible reality. It was much difficult to modify images once they were recorded, but through digital cinematographers, such activity has been made possible. Moreover, the ability of the digital cinematographers to adjust images once they were registered was exactly what gave the cinema its value as a document as the authenticity of the film was completely assured. Additionally, the same rigidity of the film has given all the required definitions of a digital cinematographers to be a super-genre of the live action narrative (Canini, Benini, and Leonardi, 2013). Despite the fact that the definition includes within itself a variety of styles, the many directors’ effort results, designers, and cinematographers shares a healthy family of a resemblance towards influencing and structuring the form and style of filmmaking.
Consequently, the mutability of digital cinematographer’s data impairs the value of cinema recordings as a document of reality (Gonring, 2015). Such assertions are evidenced in the twentieth-century regime of visual realism where the result into an automatically recording of visual reality proving to be a visual realism. The obvious reality has worked to involve the manual construction of images, thus making cinema a particular branch of painting in time. The manual creation of images in digital cinematographers is a good example of the larger trend of the influence in the film industry. There is an evidence of the return of pre-cinematic moving images techniques in the digital cinematographers (Cholodenko, 2005). The marginalized digital cinematographers have proof of realism of animation and the special effects, such kind of techniques used emerges as the foundation of digital filmmaking. Such evidence proves that the production of digital cinematographers has brought more influences and shaped the form and shape of filmmaking.
A computerized cinematography gives various delightful confinements, inferring that a film is difficult to work with as it requires broad lighting set-ups. In some different cases, the camera may be extensive and un-generally contrasted with the advanced camera that is a great deal more worried about the incredible capture. The digital cinematographers utilize sensors to take shots that are more valuable in picture creation. This paper analyzes a portion of the material qualities and attributes of the equipment’s, procedures and programming is of the computerized silver screen generation that has impacted and molded both the film frame and style (Ellis, 2013). The digital cinematographer’s films produce excellent pictures that are utilized as a part of videotapes, hard plate, and different sorts of glimmer recollections can be used as a part of ensuring that the correct information is gathered at the ideal time. Such computerized information has now turned into a typical practice utilized as a part of most Hollywood motion pictures that are at present shot somewhat or wholly advanced. A few people have contended that the capacity to skillfully use PS is substantially more troublesome than using the instruments accessible in the simple darkroom. There are they who keep on thinking that altering in PS is just a question of squeezing a couple presets, making a cover and the printing the entire film. A man who does not have the capacity of making tasteful pictures utilizing film won’t have the ability to momentarily make a unique image through utilization of electronic hardware (Fraser and Bjornsson, 2004). Besides, more learning is required to guarantee that digital filmmaking develops to be of more noteworthy utilize and that current pictures are all around recorded that are vastly different from the customary film made pictures.
- “Digital Cinema Magazine Becomes Digital Cinematography”, 2005, Videography, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 8.
- Anderson, I.E. 2002, “The symposium imaging of dynamic processes: Multimedia highlights”, Jom, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 23.
- Baytech Cinema Announces Industry’s First Compact Digital Cinematography Recorder 2003, , New York.
- Blumenthal-Barby, M. 2015, “”Cinematography of Devices”: Harun Farocki’s Eye/Machine Trilogy”, German Studies Review, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 329-351,481.
- Burelli, P. & Yannakakis, G.N. 2015, “Adapting virtual camera behaviour through player modelling”, User Modeling and User – Adapted Interaction, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 155-183.
- Business Editors/High-Tech, &.E.W. 2000, Sony Shows Digital Cinematography Successes at Sundance Film Festival, New York.
- Canini, L., Benini, S. & Leonardi, R. 2013, “Classifying cinematographic shot types”, Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 51-73.
- Cholodenko, A. 2005, “STILL PHOTOGRAPHY?”, Afterimage, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 5-7.
- Ellis, B.E. 2013, “guilty pleasures”, Film Comment, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 12-13.
- Fraser, M. & Bjornsson, H. 2004, “Real-time digital modelling in design education and practice”, Urban Design International, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 187-196.
- Gonring, G.M. 2015, “Cineclubes piratas: aparatos tradicionais com tecnologia imprópria/ Pirate film societies: traditional apparatus with inappropriate technology”, Revista FAMECOS, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 96-109.
- Heyer, P. 2008, “Live from the Met: Digital Broadcast Cinema, Medium Theory, and Opera for the Masses”, Canadian Journal of Communication, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 591-604.
- Jackman, A.H. 2015, “3-D cinema: immersive media technology”, GeoJournal, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 853-866.
- Jacobson, B.R. 2015, “Cinematic Appeals: The Experience of New Movie Technologies”, Technology and Culture, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 558-560.
- Kim, H., Sakamoto, R., Kitahara, I., Toriyama, T. & Kogure, K. 2009, “Toward cinematizing our daily lives”, Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 87-110.
- Manovich, L. 2012. What is Digital Cinema? Retrieved from www.manovich.net/TEXT/digital-cinema.html On 1st August 2017
- Martin, A. 2009, “Screen media: Analysing film and television”, Australian Journal of Communication, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 165-168.
- Meyer, P. 2005. Traditional Film Projection in a Digital Age. Journal of Film Preservation / 70
- Raibow 1996. “Film first for digital cinematography”, 2005, Televisual. pp. 49.
- Robinson, M. 2004, “Cinematography in the digital age The digital intermediate: the cinematographer’s dream of the Wild West?”, Boards, , pp. 57.
- Rockwell, K. 2015. Film vs Digital – How Do They Compare?. Orange Coast Dental X-ray Lab. Retrieved from www.OrangeCoastDental.com On 1st August 2017
- Roth, L. 2009, “Looking at Shirley, the Ultimate Norm: Colour Balance, Image Technologies, and Cognitive Equity”, Canadian Journal of Communication, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 111-136.
- Solman, G. 2001, “Picture perfect?”, Film Comment, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 52-57.
- Stavre, I. 2013, “Mass Media in Search of a New Management and Business Model”, Revista de Management Comparat International, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 724-730.
- Stollery, M. 2009. Technicians of the unknown cinema: British critical discourse and the analysis of collaboration in film production. Film History Vol. 21 Issue 4
- Strgar, M. 2016. Film vs. digital. Katedra za reprodukcijsku fotografiju.
- Thomson Presents End-to-End Film and Digital Cinematography, Post Production, and Digital Cinema Services to Chinese Film Industry 2005. New York.
- Thomson Unveils Services and Products Spanning Digital Film Making, Digital Cinema and Internet Protocol TV for Digital In-Home Entertainment at NAB 2005 2005, , New York.
- Van Rijsselbergen, D., Poppe, C., Verwaest, M., Mannens, E. & Van, d.W. 2012, “Semantic Mastering: content adaptation in the creative drama production workflow”, Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 307-340.
- Zhuang, W., Babin, B., Xiao, Q. & Paun, M. 2014, “The influence of movie’s quality on its performance: evidence based on Oscar Awards”, Managing Service Quality, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 122-138.