Nursing and immunization

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Introduction

To prevent diseases, clinicians and health physicians use vaccines to provide the patients with defense mechanisms against some of the most dangerous and killer diseases. Immunization and injections have been widely used, but the repeated use of immunization has been insinuated as primary and efficient interventions in the field of medicine to prevent diseases. There is a rough estimation that, through use of vaccination, three million lives are saved worldwide every year.

Importantly, various researches have shown that serious reactions after vaccination may result in adverse effects but on rare occasions. Some of the reactions or adverse effects may include pain, swelling, and redness. An adverse event entails any unwanted and unnecessary medical reaction in patients who have been administered a vaccine or medicine, it therefore a condition which is uncalled for, unfavorable, and unintended which is associated or coincides with symptoms of another disease. The essay seeks to illustrate how adverse events following immunization are distinguished and managed that do not need reporting and that require reporting. For the case of reporting, documentation and the reporting process by the patients will also be described.

How to recognize and manage AEFI’s that do not require reporting

In the management of the adverse effects following vaccination, recipients remain under observations for some time. It is important to note that some of the medical reactions do not require reporting, and are easier to recognize and manage. The observation takes place immediately after injection or immunization has been administered. Patients who experience such fainting require reporting since that may lead to severe consequences but for the case of giddiness complaints or light-headedness after vaccination are required to be outlaid until free of symptoms. The most commonly encountered medical reactions after immunization include redness, itching, swelling or burning on the site of injection, and pain. There are common local reactions that do not require reporting but the recipients remain under close observation. The injections site nodules are moderately common and are the fibrous remnants of the body’s reaction and interaction with the vaccines syrup or components in the muscle tissues. It is important to note that some of these reactions may remain for some weeks immediately after immunization and do not require treatment.  Other symptoms that the recipient experiences include; tiredness and low-grade fever lasting for a few days and this do not require reporting as well (Immunise.health.gov.au, 2018).

The symptoms are manageable through administration of prophylactic paracetamol but this not advisable for infant/child (say of less than two years) or even an adult with less than 38.50C.  It has been established that the dosage for a child of up to 12 years is 15mg/kg/dose and up to maximum of 60mg/kg/dose per day. While that of adults aged 12 years and above is 500 to 100mg after every four or six houses.

How to recognize and manage AEFI’s that require reporting

Notably, it is important to report cases of severe and serious AEFI cases. The most serious and recognized immediate AEFI is the anaphylaxis but the most common medical reaction after immunization is the vasovagal episode (fainting), which may attack either soon or moments after the administration. In such events, there is need for an immediate reporting to help the service providers with a consequential reaction to the same before the event worsens. Although the rate of AEFI is usually very low as compared to the disease complications, it is important to report the uncommon or rare occurrences to provide information useful in making recommendations on which vaccine to be administered. The information provided enables the service providers to carry out further investigations to ensure that they manage the condition. Examples of such cases include; the febrile convulsions, oral rotavirus, brachial neuritis, and anaphylaxis among many others.

When the adverse effects following immunization report is filed or recorded with the service providers, specifically for this study, it is entered into the Australian Adverse Drug Reactions Systems (ADRS), from which it is analyzed by the TGA staff to provide signals for possible safety concerns. If the signal is identified, the TGA staff undertakes an evaluation to determine whether the vaccine administered was in any way responsible for the medical reactions and where possible appropriate actions and practices are taken.

In case of documentation, it is advisable for the service providers to offer documentation of all vaccines given to any person. There are files that have been established and from which these records can be stored and retrieved when needed. The details that are recorded include: the person’s date of birth and full name, the date and time of vaccination, the date the next vaccination is to be administered, the details of the vaccine administered, and lastly, the site of administration. The recipient is required to conduct the service provider in case of some serious symptoms by calling or filling the fax document and sending it to the TGA Staff. To ensure surety on the reporting one can contact various departments such as; ACT – ACT Health department, NSW – To connect to your local Public Health Unit among other procedures.

Did you like this sample?
  1. Immunise.health.gov.au. (2018). Immunize – 2.3 Post-vaccination.
  2. Immunise.health.gov.au. (2018). Immunize – Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI).
  3. Www2.health.vic.gov.au. (2018). Adverse events following immunization reporting.
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