Table of Contents
Introduction: The observed model
Primary nursing care was the use of the facility as a delivery system that supported professional nursing practice. It involves a comprehensive and individualized care provided by the same nurse in the course of care. In the primary nursing, there is an establishment of the therapeutic relationship between the Registered nurse (RN) and the patient, including his or her family (Fawcett & Desanto-Madeya, 2013). The family recognizes the relationship. Hence, the RN has to safeguard it and make it a priority for the care team. Notably, the registered nurse assumes the responsibility to initiate the relationship as they care for the patient. The most defining components of primary nursing are clear to the RN. The RN considers these components before undertaking their responsibilities. The components help foster independence in decision-making and autonomy when caring for a patient. However, the primary nurse provides care in partnership with other nurses and caregivers, as well as the patient. The collaborative practice is ideal for identifying the unique health needs and priorities. As a result, the two partners establish an individualized plan of care for a positive health outcome. Moreover, the primary nurse communicates the established plan to all members involved. The associate nurses are given the responsibility to follow the plan and watch if the patient’s condition may warrant any adjustment.
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It is worth noting that primary nursing is a model of nursing practice that focuses on the continuity of care. It involves one nurse providing complete care for a group of patients, within a nursing unit, in a health facility. The primary nurse has 24-hour responsibility for the patient’s care since he or she is responsible for their direct care. Primary nursing is aimed at meeting all the individualized needs of the patient (Fawcett & Desanto-Madeya, 2013). Many institutions reject this kind of care since it is costly. However, it is beneficial to the patients and allows the RN to take a full responsibility of the patient.
A review of scholarly resources related to the current model
The Progressive Patient Care (PPC) is another model where patients are placed units, based on their needs of care. In many instances, these groups are determined by the degree of the patient illness and not by their medical specialty. The organization of care focuses on the degree of illness, as well as, the care requirements of the hospital. The PPC involves a systematic grouping of patients, such as in intensive care units (ICU), self-care units, long-term care, organized home care and intermediate care units. The progressive patient care is conducted and organized according to the facilities, services, and staff to cater both medical and nursing needs of the patient (Fawcett & Desanto-Madeya, 2013). The unit is tailored to meet specific needs of the patients.
In this model, the nursing care and supervision is deliberately maximized in the critical care units. The intensive care unit requires this model since the patient requires extensive care, as well, as a continuous observation, with a well trained and experienced personnel. The unit is aimed at supporting life in crisis and eliminating the cause of dysfunction by using specialized treatment. The unit is, therefore, fitted with life-saving equipment and life-saving drugs, as well. The intermediate care is another unit requiring the PPC model. Patients, in this unit, require moderate care. Equally, the self-care also falls into this category since it caters for patients, whose illness is managed in an acute phase. Lastly, the long-term care unit attends to patients in need of prolonged nursing care, such as rehabilitation and physical therapy (Institute of Medicine (U.S.)., & Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2011).
A review of scholarly resources related to the different care model
Team nursing is another model that involves the use of a leader and members in providing the various aspects of nursing care to patients. In this type of model, medications may be administered by one nurse, while other physical care is provided by an assistant nurse, who is under supervision by the nursing leader. The model involved the use of skill mixes that include special and experienced/qualified nurses in the nursing orderlies (Institute of Medicine (U.S.)., & Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2011). Essentially, the team has a nurse in charge, who is the team leader, other nurses, aides and technicians. The nurse in charge is the one responsible for assigning patients to team members. The nurse has the skills and knowledge about individual patient and establishes their plan of care. Then he or she assigns other nurses and staff to the patient by delegating tasks that match their scope of practice in assisting the patient.
The Team nursing model is an integrated version, which helps health care practitioners in handling patients. The patients, with this model, experience handoffs and undergo various interfaces of the medical setting. The nurses, as well as other staff, have different educational and occupational training (Fawcett & Desanto-Madeya, 2013). Therefore, the model involves team collaboration and communication with the staff to enable effective delivery of care. Most importantly, the integration of providers, for various professions, ensures that the desired results are achieved. Team nursing is the best model for a patient, who needs acute care or inpatient care. Nurses, in the acute care, help critical patients confront the life-threatening situation.
The recommended model is the one that supports teams in primary care. It enhances the functions of primary care through coordination, first contact, as well as, continuous, and safe care approach. Team based primary care is a potential solution to allow increased access to care services, as well as, creating a person-centered care approach (Institute of Medicine (U.S.)., & Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2011). The team based primary care occurs through additional support to the primary care physicians. When team-based interventions are used in primary care, the outcome is an improved patient satisfaction and better disease-specific outcomes. These effects are greater when primary care teams exemplify team values and behaviors that appear consistent with the high-holistic care approaches. The strength of a team-based primary care lies in the variety of skills and quality of clinical practice, brought about by team effort.
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Overall, following the above exploration, on the patient care models, it is notable that the different models are significant, even though they have evolved. The models play a vital role in determining the quality of care service provided. Each model takes care of a specific target of patients, and thus, they are all important. However, using an integrated model, that comprises the team-based primary care, is the best option. Mainly, this is because, the model has a flexible and adaptable nature as it addresses patient issues at the right time, with the right staff and under the desired standardization.
- Fawcett, J., & Desanto-Madeya, S. (2013). Contemporary nursing knowledge: Analysis and evaluation of nursing models and theories. Philadelphia, PA : F.A. Davis Company.
- Institute of Medicine (U.S.)., & Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2011). The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.