Table of Contents
Horne takes a unique focus on religion and contemporary religious issues. The book offers a great explanation of deductive logic relating it to critical reasoning. Deductive reasoning is a trait that aims at reaching logical and true conclusions. Deductive logic and reasoning insinuate what people can learn and gain from what they read or see. The continuous advancements in the global community have stipulated a lot of changes in the approach of religion and religious issues (Horne). It is imperative to have a distinct and efficient approach to any issues in the contemporary world and thus the need to enact a deductive approach.
Introduction to Critical Thinking and Logic
The introduction of this book offers a clear description of critical thinking and logic. The essence of critical thinking is coming up with a unique and yet informed focus. Horne (3-9) talks about the essential concepts such as critical thinking, logic, and the need to clearly and efficiently enact them in the real world. Critical thinking is crucial in any set up as it influences results. Some people try to implement it through role-playing in simulation-based scenarios (Ertmer, Strobel and Cheng 73-77). People encounter numerous challenges in the course of their lives, and regardless of their religion and beliefs, it is imperative to prepare for the constant hardships. The chapter on critical thinking offers a divine approach that prepares people on the world. The chapter gives people a unique focus on religious studies and gives them a more informed focus and perspective on contemporary religious issues in the society today.
Religion and religious studies are contemporary issues in the modern world and thus it imperative to have a detailed understanding of the issue. Horne talks about the basic concepts of logic and critical thinking and tries to drive the point home by talking about religion, logic, and the media (Horne). This focus is essential because the media is a key player in the spread of religious beliefs and views. It is imperative to look at the media and appropriately pick out the media examples and anything in the media that depicts religious people. The essence of critical thinking is that it gives people a chance to understand religion and religious study by simply observing and following up on current and trending issues. The book by Horne insists that the primary goal is come up with effective analysis of a formal structure presented in the media or any other platform(Horne). Therefore, the main essence is not the truth but rather the critical analysis of the issue.
Art, media, and the society insist on the need to have a basic knowledge of the development, history, and theoretical debates relating to the media and the society. The media offers a diverse and broad focus on the society, and thus it is essential to use it to have a detailed and comprehensive focus on religion. Criticisms, aesthetics, and basic history of traditional forms of artistic endeavor are important to critical thinking and the distinct approach to religion and religious studies. The introductory chapter offers great insights and directives on the important factors to consider in the approach of religion and thus outlines the need to have basic understandings.
It is important to understand a typical critical idiom and discourse that looks at media or media modes of practice. The media conveys different religious beliefs and has the ability and capability to spread numerous beliefs and ideologies. The media is a global platform that is widely used and accepted, and thus the news and stories in this platform can quickly and widely spread. The media can spread diverse depictions of any form of religion. The people have the choice to choose what they pick out from the media and what they avoid. For instance, if the media continually relate terrorists with Muslims, then people hold an image that Muslims are terrorists. Therefore, it is critical to have a clear focus to come up with critical logic in religious studies efficiently. The book by Horne insists on the need to be upfront and look at issues straight on.
The media portrays religion and beliefs and thus can influence people. The representation of religion in the mainstream media is rarely comprehensive. It is a representation of people who have a stand or ideologies and critics, and thus they possess some biases. There is the story of good Christian and bad Muslim which is told through expression and omission (Day). The media gives strong emphasis on the dominant religion and thus may walk over the other religions. Horne insists on the need to follow up on theories and debates that relate to critical approaches and the relationship amongst media, art, and the society. Religion relates to time and the contemporary beliefs, and thus it is important to have a historical understanding of religion.
Logical Argumentation: Identify Arguments and Indicators
The book talks about the need to have sufficient information and details supporting an argument. Horne (15-22) insists on the essence of logical argumentation by stipulating the positives of a great presentation. In 1995, there was a media representation which stipulated that there was a killing where 8,000 Muslim men and boys were killed (Day). The differentiation in religion brings division between distinct religious beliefs. Horne outlines the need to identify indicators and arguments by picking from the media. It is essential to use the media and what it offers to have a great focus on contemporary issues in the modern world. Horne tries to offer distinct logical approaches to critical thinking, and thus it is critical to understand how to implement logical argumentation effectively.
The book talks about media examples and thus requests people to look at the trending issues and to look at constant media representations to gain logical arguments. The media offers a detailed focus on the modern world, and thus it is imperative to pick real news from fake news and effectively pick the comprehensive arguments. Logical argumentation requires a person to have a clear understanding of the crucial issues and properly maneuver between them. A person can effectively be more efficient if he or she can differentiate between reason and facts. It is easy to outline the facts, but it is hard to come up with logical explanations for these facts. It is critical to come up with convincing ideologies and arguments. Logical argumentation is critical for decision making and thus can be used in many disciplines. Logical argumentation is important for research purposes and thus outlines the main outline of this study (Macoubrie 291). Logic depends on the substantive content of a decision, and thus it is critical to come up with logical argumentation.
Horne (39-81) insists that information is crucial in different situations and scenarios and thus the need to constantly look at real events. The media plays an important role in spreading beliefs and customs. Over the past few decades, the media has played a role either directly or indirectly in spreading religious beliefs and typical stereotypes. There have been constant claims that any terrorist attacks associate mostly with Muslims, an issue that has stipulated campaigns in the United States to curb the spread of the Islamic religion. There have been numerous terrorist attacks around the world, and most have been limited to Muslims, and thus it is important to consider the influence of the media in the world. This is a unique media example that shows the strength of the media and the role it plays in the spread of religion.
The media age ensures that the sacred is secular and the secular is sacred (Hosseini 56-60). Unifying these important elements in the contemporary human life is important. It is important to understand the relationship between science and religion. The media can influence people and their decisions or way of reasoning. The theory of uses and gratification insinuates that people use the media for their gains and thus choose what they want to watch or listen to and what they choose to stash away. If the media pays a lot of attention on the issue of the person who walked into a church and shot people in the United States and then claimed to be a Muslim, then a lot of people will pay a lot of regard to these issues.
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The media representation of religion plays a huge role in how people view the concept and the discipline. Religious studies efficiently explain different religions and talk about the crucial aspects of religion. The media has huge global influence, and thus it is important to consider different media examples and try to understand what they mean. For an instant, one can try to understand the media representation of the pope. In the Christian religion, the Pope is a chosen person who is very important to the Christian dominion. However, there is also an ideological view of the concept. He is like a unifying figure and a person meant to guide other Christians. However, other religions will simply understand the Pope as a person. Therefore, the focus of the media improves the understanding of this concept.
Horne talks about the need to understand the non-argument persuasions. The media achieves its goals and objectives by clearly convincing people and managing to convince them of what the media airs. Some people believe that a lot of terrorists are Muslim while they also understand that not all Muslims are terrorists. This presentation depends on the ability of the media to convince the people and to efficiently sell their story. The use of non-persuasion arguments entails coming up with facts and information that can convince without stipulating an argument.
An article in the Guardian focused on the worst places to be Christians creating this ideology that some religious beliefs are undermined (Lyons and Blight). The media focus on the issue of religion influences the perspectives of people. There are many religions such as Christianity, Islam, or Judaism. The media can spread popular beliefs about these religions or outline stereotypes. The media at times exaggerate the issue of some countries embracing one religion and condemning the other. The article by Lyons and Blight looks at anti-Christian countries, and thus people understand that there are divisions based on religion. The media is a platform that can incite, educate, or simply spread influential information depending on the audience.
Late last year, some Christians were killed during the numerous attacks in the Coptic Christian communities in Egypt (Mala). It is important to have a logical deduction of these actions rather than jumping to conclusions that there is a war between different religions. It is a complex subject, and thus it is imperative not to limit the argument to the differences between one religion and the other. The essence of critical thinking and logic is coming up with a detailed and efficient explanation. The media has a lot of influence on the people, and thus it will continually manipulate people and their thoughts. It presents people with a chance to come up with conclusions without clearly outlining them. For instance, a suggestion that Christians were killed shows that the culprits were from another religion and focused on killing Christians rather than a general act of homicide.
Formal Logic: Basic Symbols and Patterns
Horne (89-90) argues that it is important to understand the impact of any argument and thus come up with efficient and comprehensive information. The strength of any argument is to come up with reason and facts to support it. The evaluation of arguments helps a person understand what it implies and whether it makes sense based on the information present. Critical thinking primarily depends on the content, and thus it is important to come up with a lot of supporting material to follow up any voice of reason. The book looks at critical thinking and logic and tries to relate that to the contemporary world and thus outlining the need to have a good understanding of current issues before coming up with an argument (Horne 92-97). Therefore, it is vital to go through arguments and try to see where they are failing.
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Logic in Everyday Life
This chapter insists on the importance of keeping up with changes in the modern world and continually improve on how people view distinct issues (Horne 142-150). There are currently many distinct religions in the world, and thus it is vital to analyze these religions and religious issues. There are many religious issues such as beliefs about marriage or family that exist, and thus it is vital to understand them before crafting any argument efficiently. Horne insists on the need for logical thinking and logic, and one can only achieve this by having a diverse understanding of the contemporary world. The world is ever evolving, and it is vital to keep up with the continuous changes. The aspect of religion is also improving, and there is a lot of information on the issue. Therefore, it is vital to understand any new or old issue and use this information to come up with logical statements and information.
Horne shows that it is vital to implement logic and critical thinking in any experience whether personal or a learning experience. He talks about the essence of deductive fallacies because they help develop essential arguments. He outlines the need to find factual information and the need to have convincing arguments. Critical thinking depends on the weight of the available information. Like many things in the modern world, religion and religious issues are changing and thus it is important for people to embrace these changes. The book offers a detailed focus on critical thinking with an emphasis on the need to have information, to understand the constant changes, and to continually look for weight and reason.
In conclusion, the book shows the importance of both formal and informal arguments. People can come up with vital reasoning through non-argument persuasion or informal arguments that depend on the evaluation and critiquing process. For instance, Christians and Muslims have distinct beliefs. There is the issue of polygamy which is embraced by the latter and condemned by the former. It is important to understand these issues since they strengthen any argument.
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- Day, Abby. “The Conflict Between Religion and Media has Deep Roots.”
- Ertmer, Peggy A., et al. “Expressions of Critical Thinking In Role-Playing Simulations: Comparisons Across Roles.” Journal of Computing in High Education, vol 22, no. 2, 73-94, 2010.
- Horne, David Lawrence. Straight to the Point: A Primer for Logical Introduction to Critical Thinking. Pearson Custom Publishers, 2005.
- Hosseini, S. H. “Religion and Media, Religious Media, or Media Religion: Theoretical Studies.” Journal of Media and Religion, vol. 7, no. 2, 2008, 56-69.
- Lyons, Kate, and Garry Blight. Where in the World is the Worst Place to be a Christian?Theguardian.com, 27 July 2015
- Macoubrie, Jane. “Logical Argument Structures in Decision-Making.” Argumentation, vol. 17, no.3, 2003, 291-313.
- Mala, Christina. Christians Kissed Outside Church in Latest Religious Attack in Muslim Egypt.