Table of Contents
The Black Power Movement
The black power movement was a socio-political movement founded by black African students to help advocate for equality, racial pride and self-sufficiency. Under the leadership of Stokely Carmichael, the leader of student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, many of them strongly opposed Martin Luther king Jnr use of non-violent protests as a viable means of fighting racism. Having come up at a time when a clear oppression was too deeply entrenched in America’s institution, Black power movement sought to achieve better education for the black community, build institutions, and provide the basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter. Members of this group depicted much readiness to lash out against the establishments in a violent way, especially in cases of complete denial of their basic human rights. Black Panther Party for Self-Defense formed in 1966 became the most violent wing of the movement. This wing carried loaded guns to public appearances and openly declared themselves at war with the power structure established by the white government. Black power also employed non-violent means to emphasize their enhanced sense of pride. Here people like LeRoi Jones, a Playwright and poet, used art and literature to advance the black Africans grievances.
The Chicano movement just like the black power emerged as a socio-political moment that existed in period marked by wide spread growth of Civil rights movements in America. This movement was founded to fight for the rights of the Hispanics community. Its goals including fighting for the right for workers, education reforms and restoration of their land were much related to those advanced by other civil movements. Chicano movement’s resemblance of the black power movement is also founded in the fact that it was organized and ran by students groups like the Mexican American Youth Association and the Mexican American Students. Chicano only differed from the other two movements in their use of non-violent protests. Such is the case that Chicano mostly fought for their rights through court cases including Mendez v. Westminster Supreme Court of 1947 and the Hernandez v. Texas of 1954. Other approaches used by Chicano to fight for their rights included staged walkouts from schools, non-violent street protests like the 1966, Reies López Tijerina led three-day march and print media such as “Yo Soy Joaquín,” or “I Am Joaquín,” poem by Activist Rodolfo “Corky”.
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Red power movement
The red power movement reflected a violent protest by Native Indians who were fighting to reclaim their land back from non-native Americans. Similar to the other civil right movements that were led by students, Red power was led by Young militant students who openly violated the laws and confronted the government. The major catalyst for the growth of Repower movement was the occupation of the Alcatraz Island located in San Francisco Bay which the Indians of All Tribes” claimed citing the terms spelled by the 1868 US accord with the Sioux. Activities of this group were greatly influenced by the African Americans who faced similar prejudice from the whites. The most notable organization under this movement was the American Indian Movement (AIM). Initially organized to advocate for Civil rights of Indians living in cities, AIM worked by monitoring the practices of the law enforcement, highlight and stop police harassment and brutality.
- Bean, Jonathan J. Race And Liberty In America. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, published in association with the Independent Institute, 2009. Print.
- Benson, Sonia et al. UXL Encyclopedia Of U.S. History. Detroit, Mich.: UXL, 2009. Print.