The Pathophysiology and Treatment of Asthma

Subject: Health Care
Type: Analytical Essay
Pages: 4
Word count: 993
Topics: Asthma, Disease, Health, Management, Medicine


Many people from across the world suffer many respiratory infections. It is, therefore, significant to take necessary precautions to eradicate further complications. Most of the respiratory conditions that people suffer from are either genetic or environmental. One of the chronic respiratory infections is asthma. The main symptoms of an asthma attack are the shortness of breath and a wheezing sound (Carlsen & Gerritsen, 2012). Allergies, pollution, and smoking are factors that trigger the condition. Even though asthma is not treatable, health care experts have identified ways specific ways of managing it with early identification of the symptoms. This paper delves into a comprehensive analysis of the pathophysiology and treatment of asthma.


Asthma is the chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes. When an individual has asthma, the tubes are always inflamed. The triggered asthmatic condition leads to the swelling of the bronchial tubes and blockage of the passage of air in and out of the lungs (Barnes, 2009). As a result, the person will experience persistent coughs, wheezing, tightening of the chest, or short breaths. Individuals with a family history of asthma are likely to develop the disorder because it is genetic. However, some other people are liable to develop occupational asthma, which comes because of inhaling gas, dust, or even fumes. 

Similarly, it is also unfortunate that some healthy people develop exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, which occurs because of physical activities. However, the doctors give a plan on how to manage exercise-induced asthma during and after exercise (Patterson & Yeager, 2008).  Besides, there is the childhood asthma, which affects children who are under five years. If the identification of the symptoms takes place on time, then the disorder is treatable at that stage. Nevertheless, asthma is fatal if not well addressed. 

Clinical Manifestation

Patient X visited my clinic a while ago complaining of various symptoms. Foremost, X experienced chronic coughing and chest tightness and further complained that she felt pain sometimes when coughing. Moreover, X suffered sleeplessness due to the prolonged coughing. I also noted that my patient seemed to strain a lot while breathing. After further questioning, X admitted that the symptoms worsened during cold seasons, very early in the morning, and after exercise. Notably, the patient had realized that the tightness of the chest and the coughing would worsen after exposure to dusty places, strong fragrances, and even near factories. 

After noting down the signs and the symptoms of the patient, I had to find out the medical history so I could conduct my analysis. I collected details such as whether X had relatives who had asthma, her profession, any other health condition, and whether she was under any medication or not. After collecting the medical history of patient X, I conducted a physical examination by examining the nose, the upper airwaves, and the throat. Additionally, I used a stethoscope to inspect the breathing of the patient and realized that she produced a wheezing sound. After that examination, I conducted the spirometry test to find out how much air the lungs could hold and the speed of the air inhaled and exhaled. 

Medical Management

Undoubtedly, the patient’s diagnostic procedure identified asthma, a factor that required immediate medication. Asthma is incurable, but the illness is controllable after following the doctor’s prescription appropriately. An allergist should provide effective asthma treatment and advise the patient on the most suitable way to take the medication. There are two ways of taking asthma prescriptions. One way is the taking of pills, but the best medication for the condition is using inhalers (Patterson, & Yeager, 2008). It is advisable for health care providers to demonstrate to the patient the most effective way of using the inhalers. Even though asthma is incurable, a medical expert should assure the patient that the disorder is manageable through adhering to the prescribed instructions. 

Since the weather was chilly, and the patient had already experienced tightness of the chest, I had to prescribe quick-relief medications that aid in opening the airwaves in cases of an asthma flare-up. Additionally, the rescue medications are suitable before going for physical activities (Barnes, 2009). For this reason, I prescribed short-acting beta-agonists for quick-relief. For long-term control of the condition, I prescribed the inhaled corticosteroids, which are the most useful for controlling the inflammation of the airwaves. However, the inhaled corticosteroids can cause mouth thrush, but the side effect is preventable via attaching a spacer to the inhaler. Moreover, the long-term drugs can result in a condition called osteoporosis that weakens the bones (Carlsen, & Gerritsen, 2012). Therefore, it is important to advise the patient to take sufficient calcium or vitamin D pills. 


Since asthma attacks could result in severe complications, it is advisable for the healthcare sector to address the menace. The public should have the knowledge on the best way to administer first aid to the people who have asthma. If I had found X in the field setting, I would have offered first aid before rushing her to a nearby hospital. The first thing to do is to assist the woman to sit in an upright position. Secondly, if the patient’s dressing were a tight outfit, then, I would help loosen the clothing to allow free circulation of air. Once the patient regains consciousness, I would rush her to the nearest health center for a further check-up. 

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  1. Barnes, P. J. (2009). Asthma and COPD: Basic mechanisms and clinical management. Amsterdam: Academic.
  2. Carlsen, K.-H., & Gerritsen, J. (2012). Paediatric Asthma. Sheffield: European Respiratory Society.
  3. Patterson, A. V., & Yeager, P. N. (2008). Asthma: Etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. New York: Nova Biomedical Books. 
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