Table of Contents
During pregnancy, various therapeutic complications generally exist. These complications are capable of affecting both the fetus and the mother. Usually, the most commonly medically related complications that affect women particularly during their 2nd trimester include hypersensitive pregnancy and Gestational diabetes disorders according to Alfadhli (2015) as discussed below. The discussion will also involve materials and methods used to determine IgG levels in pregnancy as well as its impacts on the immune response of the maternal system.
Gestational diabetes refers to a variety of hyperglycemia generally recognized during pregnancy period and fades away swiftly later after childbirth. Gestational diabetes results from a rise in insulin resistance a condition that is accompanied by pregnancy. This condition disables the maternal insulin in functioning efficiently in taking up glucose hence resulting in hyperglycemia (Buchanan and Xiang, 2005). Buchanan and Xiang (2005) further stated that the resistance in insulin could also result from the secretion of hormonal products by the placenta and even from an increase in maternal obese or adiposity. Pregnant women who are prone to developing gestational diabetes are characterized by; advanced age, maternal obesity, a family with a history of diabetes mellitus (type 2), an ovarian polycystic disease, and a woman with record of recurrent stillbirths, and last but not the least, a history of hypertension. The impediments that result from gestational diabetes are alienated into maternal issues which might comprise emergent of hypertensive disorders especially during pregnancy period, cesarean delivery or the development of diabetes mellitus (type 2) in the prospect, and fetal problems which could include extreme fetal enlargement. Moreover, there exist neonatal issues which include hypocalcemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and respiratory misery disorder (Group, 2002). Based on a study that was carried out on 20 hyperglycemic pregnant women and 20 healthy pregnant women; they found that the hyperglycemic pregnant women group has lower IgG serum level than the healthy pregnant women (The IgG level in hyperglycemic pregnant women was around 1649 ± 208 while the IgG level in ordinary pregnant women was around 2015 ± 262) (França, Calderon, Vieira, Morceli & Honorio-França, 2012)
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Materials and Methods
The subjects were first evaluated, the second thing involved colostrums sampling. The third step involved blood testing which was then followed by immunoglobulin determination. The fifth step involved separation of the colossal phagocytes. Then, the blood MN phagocytes were separated. The second last step involved Anion Superoxide release and finally the bactericidal assay (França, Calderon, Vieira, Morceli and Honorio-França, 2012)
Hypertension that occurs during pregnancy, by definition can refer to a rise in the maternal blood pressure with her diastolic ≥90 mmHg and her systolic ≥140 mmHg when double measured at an interval of four to six. Hypertensive pregnancy complications are accompanied by multiple conditions which might include preeclampsia, chronic hypertension, and gestational hypertension (Mammaro et al., 2009). Preeclampsia results from a combination of proteinuria and maternal blood-pressure increase after a gestation period of 20 weeks. Eclampsia, on the other hand, refers to a combination of high maternal blood-pressure after a gestation period of 20 weeks and proteinuria accompanied by seizures (Kattah et al., 2013). Based on a study that was carried out on 30 women with pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia/eclampsia) and 9 ordinary pregnant women, they found that the IgG serum level in the pregnant women with hypertension is lower than the average pregnant women who might suggest particular attention as the maternal and fetal immune system is in lower state.
Materials and Methods
Thirty recurrent instances with PHI and nine normotensive pregnant cases were recruited. Congenital and intrauterine cases were excluded. The third step included gestation calculation. The next step involved classification of newborns on the basis of their growth. Then maternal blood samples were collected. Serum was separated, and the C3 and IgG were estimated using Solugen plates obtained (Ramdenee at al., 1995).
In conclusion, basing on a study that was carried out on 20 hyperglycemic pregnant women and 20 healthy pregnant women, they found that the hyperglycemic pregnant women group has lower IgG serum level than the healthy pregnant women. Also, based on a study that was carried out on 30 women with pregnancy-induced hypertension and 9 ordinary pregnant women, they found that the IgG serum level in the pregnant women with hypertension is lower than the average pregnant women who might suggest particular attention as the maternal and fetal immune system is in lower state.
- Alfadhli, E. (2015). Gestational diabetes mellitus. Saudi Medical Journal, 36(4), 399-406. doi: 10.15537/smj.2015.4.10307
- Buchanan, T., & Xiang, A. (2005). Gestational diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 115(3), 485-491. doi: 10.1172/jci200524531
- França, E., Calderon, I., Vieira, E., Morceli, G., & Honorio-França, A. (2012). Transfer of maternal immunity to newborns of diabetic mothers. Clinical and Developmental Immunology, 2012, 1-7. doi: 10.1155/2012/928187
- Ramdenee, G. R., Matah, M., and Sen, M.R. (1995). Immunoglobulin G and complement C3 levels in pregnancy induced hypertension. Retrieved from https://www.bing.com/cr?IG=F66E44F1E3734B0E942AC0893426C193&CID=097C20B851AC6B0121862B4050516AEB&rd=1&h=kUbIKtNPyG9ksUASIDOcvuvWwcwfRN7CraxpG56ZAGc&v=1&r=https%3a%2f%2fwww.researchgate.net%2fpublication%2f1464340_Immunoglobulin_G_and_complement_C3_levels_in_pregnancy_induced_hypertension&p=DevEx.LB.1,5505.1
- Group, H. (2002). The hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcome (HAPO) Study. – PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12113977
- Kattah, A., Asad, R., Scantlebury, D., Bailey, K., Wiste, H., & Hunt, S. et al. (2013). Hypertension in pregnancy is a risk factor for microalbuminuria later in life. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 15(9), 617-623. doi: 10.1111/jch.12116
- Mammaro, A., Carrara, S., Cavaliere, A., Ermito, S., Dinatale, A., Pappalardo, E. M. … Pedata, R. (2009). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Journal of Prenatal Medicine, 3(1), 1–5.