Accurate and simple definitions of cumbersome academic terms with tips and examples.


A short summary or overview of a larger work, such as a research paper, thesis, or article. The primary purpose is to give readers a clear and brief understanding of the work's main ideas, objectives, methodology, findings, and conclusions.


Keep in mind the word count (100-300 words on average). Follow your requirements and stay within the word limit.

  1. Start with a strong opening sentence: Grab the reader's attention by beginning your abstract with a clear statement that highlights the significance or novelty of your work.
  2. Focus on the main findings and contributions: Highlight the most important results, discoveries, or insights that your work has produced.
  3. Be concise and avoid unnecessary details: Avoid excessive elaboration or including unnecessary experimental details; focus on core aspects.
  4. Use active voice and present tense: This helps convey a stronger and more direct connection between your work and its findings.
  5. Include quantitative information, if applicable: If your research involves quantitative data, consider including key numerical results or statistical findings.

Active Voice

A construction in which the subject of a sentence performs the action stated by the verb. It emphasizes the "doer" of the action and presents a clear, direct, and concise sentence structure. In an active voice sentence, the subject is usually positioned before the verb, and the sentence generally follows the subject-verb-object order.


While passive voice has its uses and can be appropriate in certain contexts, students are encouraged to prioritize active voice in their academic and professional writing.

For example

Active voice: "John wrote the report."

Passive voice: "The report was written by John."


An American Medical Association's style of citation. It is a widely used referencing system in the medical and scientific fields, particularly in research papers, articles, and journals.


In AMA referencing, the in-text citations are indicated by Arabic numerals within superscript brackets. These numbers correspond to the full reference details provided in the numbered reference list at the end of the document.

Example of a referencing entry for a book

1. Goodman LS, Gilman A, Brunton LL, Lazo JS, Parker KL, eds. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 12th ed. McGraw-Hill; 2011.

Example of an in-text citation

The pharmacological basis of therapeutics has been extensively studied^1.

Annotated Bibliography

A type of bibliography that includes a brief summary and evaluation of each source cited. It serves as a list of references used in a research paper or project, along with a concise description and critical assessment of each source's content, relevance, and quality.


The purpose of an annotated bibliography is to provide the reader with a clear understanding of the sources' value and applicability to the topic at hand. It usually consists of a citation, followed by a summary and evaluation.


Smith, J. (2018). The Impact of Climate Change on Biodiversity. Oxford University Press.

In this book, Smith examines the consequences of climate change on global biodiversity. The author presents a comprehensive analysis of various ecological systems affected by rising temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and habitat loss. The book draws on extensive research, including case studies and scientific data, to illustrate the current and potential future impacts on different species and ecosystems. Smith's work provides valuable insights into the urgency of addressing climate change to protect Earth's biodiversity. The author's expertise in the field and the book's well-documented evidence make it a reliable and informative source for understanding the relationship between climate change and biodiversity loss.


A style guide commonly used in academic writing, particularly in the fields of psychology, social sciences, and education.

It provides a set of guidelines for formatting papers, citing sources, and organizing references. The primary purpose of the APA style is to ensure clarity, consistency, and credibility in academic writing by providing a standardized format.


It's essential to consult the official APA Publication Manual for comprehensive guidance on APA style. These resources provide detailed instructions on formatting tables, figures, headings, and more.


An APA-style reference entry for a book:

Smith, J. D. (2020). The Psychology of Human Behavior. New York, NY: Academic Publishing.


A formal request made by a student or researcher to challenge a decision or outcome related to their academic work. Appeals are typically made when an individual believes that an error, injustice, or unfairness has occurred in relation to their grades, assessment results, academic standing, disciplinary actions, or other academic matters.


Specific procedures and policies for appeals can vary among educational institutions, so it's essential to consult your institution's guidelines or policies for detailed information on the appeal process.


A supplementary section attached to a research paper or document that includes additional information or data supporting the main content but not essential for its understanding. Its purpose is to provide readers with optional, in-depth information without disrupting the main text's flow.


It typically appears at the end of the document and contains materials such as raw data, graphs, images, or survey questionnaires.

Application Paper

A written document that demonstrates a candidate's understanding and application of theoretical concepts to real-life situations or case studies. It typically showcases the practical knowledge and skills of the individual and is often required as part of an academic or professional application process.


When writing an application paper, make sure to clearly explain the real-life context or situation you are addressing. Demonstrate how you apply the theories and concepts you've learned to provide practical solutions or insights.


An application paper could involve analyzing a real-world business case study and applying relevant management theories and concepts to propose effective strategies for solving the identified problems.


An argument is when you use reasons or evidence to support your point of view. It has three parts: an introduction where you state your main idea, the reasons or evidence you provide to back up your idea, and a conclusion that summarizes your overall point. Students use arguments in various academic settings, such as essays, debates, presentations, and discussions.


A good argument is one that is logical, well-supported, and persuasive. It presents clear reasons or evidence to support a claim and addresses counterarguments or opposing viewpoints.

Argumentative Essay

A type of academic writing that aims to present a well-developed argument or viewpoint on a particular topic or issue. It requires the student to present evidence, counterarguments, and logical reasoning to support their position and persuade the reader to agree with their perspective.


In an argumentative essay on climate change, you would state your thesis, present scientific evidence supporting the existence of climate change, and then argue for specific actions that should be taken to mitigate its effects, such as transitioning to renewable energy sources.


A citation style used in academic writing, particularly in sociology. It provides guidelines for citing sources and creating reference entries to acknowledge the original authors and works used in a research paper or essay.


In ASA referencing, the in-text citations usually include the author's last name and the publication year, while the reference entries include detailed information about the source, including the author's name, publication year, title, and publication information.

Example of a reference entry (book)

Smith, John. 2020. The Sociology of Society. New York: ABC Publishing.

Example of an in-text citation

According to Smith (2020), society plays a crucial role in shaping individuals' behaviors and beliefs.


An assignment that consists of evaluating and estimating the competencies, qualities, or characteristics of individuals or organizations.


A student might do an assessment report for policymakers regarding an ecosystem to determine whether to approve a law that permits businesses to construct on specific parcels of land.


Key components of an assessment:

  1. Objective: defines the purpose or goal of the assessment, which serves as the foundation for the subsequent report.
  2. Methodology: techniques and approaches employed to evaluate the individuals or entities under assessment and derive meaningful results.
  3. Summary and Recommendations: this section highlights key insights and suggests actions or improvements in relevant areas.
  4. Data: specific information and data that support the ideas, claims, or conclusions presented. This data may include quantitative measurements, qualitative observations, statistical analysis, or other relevant evidence.

Biased Language

Refers to using words or phrases that demonstrate prejudice or favoritism towards a particular group, often based on race, gender, or socioeconomic status.


"All doctors are male" is an example of biased language, as it assumes that all doctors are of a specific gender.


It is essential to be mindful of biased language when communicating or writing, as it can perpetuate stereotypes and exclude specific individuals or groups.


A comprehensive list of sources consulted and cited in academic work.


Remember to consult the specific citation style guide (such as APA, MLA, Chicago, or Harvard) recommended by your institution or publisher for detailed instructions on formatting your bibliography.


Books: Smith, J. (2020). The History of Science. Oxford University Press.


A widely used citation style guide for legal documents and academic writing in law. The Bluebook provides detailed guidelines for legal citation, including cases, statutes, and other legal authorities. It is commonly used in legal research and writing.


In a legal document, a citation in Bluebook style would look like this:

  • Smith v. Johnson, 543 U.S. 123 (2010).

Body Language

Non-verbal communication expressed through facial expressions, gestures, posture, and other physical cues. Understanding body language can enhance communication and help interpret unspoken messages conveyed by individuals in various contexts, such as interviews, presentations, or interpersonal interactions.


A person crossing their arms and avoiding eye contact during a conversation may indicate defensiveness or disagreement.

Body Paragraph

A unit of writing within an essay or academic paper that develops and supports a specific point or topic related to the main thesis or argument. It consists of a topic sentence that presents the main idea of the paragraph, followed by supporting sentences that provide evidence, examples, analysis, or explanations to strengthen the argument or claim.


Body paragraphs provide supporting evidence, examples, and analysis to strengthen the main points of an academic paper. Each body paragraph should be organized around a specific topic or idea.


A transitional statement or paragraph that connects two separate ideas or sections in an essay or academic paper. Bridges help create a smooth flow of ideas and guide readers through the logical progression of an academic paper. They ensure coherence and help readers understand the connections between different parts of the text.


"Having discussed the causes of poverty in the previous section, we will now explore potential solutions."


The use of mathematical methods to analyze data, quantify results, or support arguments with the goal of offering objective evidence, enhancing credibility, and deepening understanding.

  • Explain clearly: include step-by-step explanations to guide readers.
  • Organize neatly: use spacing, indentation, and alignment for readability.
  • Connect to arguments: show how calculations support your message.
  • Ensure accuracy: review and verify your work to maintain credibility.

Case Study

A detailed and in-depth examination of a particular subject, typically within the fields of social sciences, business, or psychology. It includes thorough research, data collection, and analysis to gain insights and draw conclusions.


Case studies are valuable tools for understanding real-life scenarios and applying theoretical concepts. They provide a comprehensive analysis and can be used to support arguments or propose solutions.


A case study could involve investigating the impact of social media on consumer behavior by studying a specific group of individuals and their purchasing decisions.

Central Idea

The main point or theme of a text, speech, or presentation. It encapsulates the core message or purpose and guides the content and structure of the work.


Identifying the central idea helps readers or listeners focus on the main argument or objective. It serves as a compass, keeping the content coherent and cohesive.


In a persuasive essay about the importance of recycling, the central idea could be stated as "Recycling is crucial for environmental sustainability and reducing waste."


A style guide for academic writing and publishing. It provides guidelines for formatting documents, citations, and references, particularly in the fields of history, social sciences, and literature.

Example of a reference entry

Smith, John. The History of Ancient Rome. New York: Oxford University Press, 2019.

Example of an in-text citation

According to Smith (2019, 45), the rise of Julius Caesar marked a turning point in Roman history.


Familiarizing yourself with the Chicago Manual of Style can be valuable for maintaining consistency and professionalism in academic writing. It's essential to consult the latest edition for accurate guidelines.


A reference to a source of information used in writing, such as a book, article, or website. References are used to support ideas, provide evidence, or give credit to the original author.

Citations are crucial for avoiding plagiarism and allowing readers to locate the sources. Understanding the different citation styles, such as APA, MLA, or Chicago, is important to follow the conventions of your discipline. Proper citations enhance the credibility and reliability of your work.

Example of a reference entry (APA style)

Smith, J. D. (2021). The Psychology of Human Behavior. Publisher.

Example of an in-text citation (APA style)
  • (Smith, 2021)
  • According to Smith (2021), the psychology of human behavior is a complex field.

Classification Essay

A classification essay categorizes and organizes a topic into groups based on shared characteristics or criteria. It aims to provide a clear understanding of different categories and their defining features.


When writing a classification essay, ensure that each category is distinct and that examples within each category support the classification.


A classification essay on types of music genres might classify them into categories such as rock, pop, jazz, classical, and hip-hop, based on their musical elements and cultural influences.


An overused expression, phrase, or idea that has lost its originality and impact. It lacks creativity and fails to provide fresh insights or perspectives.


While clichés can sometimes convey familiarity or provide a shared reference, they should be used sparingly in academic writing. Strive for originality and use fresh language to engage readers and express your ideas more effectively.


"Actions speak louder than words" is a common cliché often used to convey the idea that actions have a greater impact than mere verbal promises.


The highest point of tension, excitement, or intensity in a narrative or plot. It represents the turning point or the moment of greatest conflict or resolution.


In a mystery novel, the climax could be the scene where the detective confronts the culprit and reveals their identity, bringing together all the clues and suspense built throughout the story.


A logical and smooth flow of ideas within a text or presentation. It ensures that the content is organized, connected, and easy to understand, allowing readers or listeners to follow the argument or narrative effectively.


In an essay, coherence is achieved by using appropriate transition words, arranging paragraphs in a logical order, and maintaining consistent and clear connections between ideas.


The final part of a piece of writing or presentation. It summarizes the main points, restates the thesis or main argument, and provides a sense of closure. The conclusion often offers insights, reflections, or recommendations based on the preceding content.


The conclusion should effectively wrap up the discussion and leave readers with a sense of the significance of the topic or the key takeaways.


In a research paper about climate change, the conclusion may summarize the key findings, discuss the implications, and propose further avenues for research or action.


Academic assignments or projects that students complete as part of a course or program of study. It can include essays, research papers, presentations, experiments, or other tasks designed to assess knowledge, understanding, and skills.


In a biology course, coursework might involve conducting laboratory experiments, writing lab reports, and completing assignments related to the study of cells or ecosystems.

Cover Letter

A formal document submitted alongside a job application or when applying for internships, scholarships, or academic programs. It introduces the applicant and highlights their qualifications, skills, experiences, and reasons for interest in the position or opportunity.


A cover letter for a job application might include a brief introduction, a summary of relevant experiences, an explanation of how the applicant's skills align with the requirements of the position, and a closing statement expressing interest and availability for an interview.

Cover Page

The first page of a document or manuscript, typically providing essential information such as the title, author's name, date, course details, or institutional affiliation. It serves as a visual introduction and offers a quick overview of the document's content.


While not always required, cover pages add a professional touch to academic or formal documents. They help organize information and make it easier for readers or evaluators to identify and navigate various papers or reports.

Creative Writing

Creative writing refers to the practice of expressing thoughts, ideas, or narratives in an imaginative and artistic manner. It involves using literary devices, such as metaphor, simile, and symbolism, to evoke emotions, create vivid imagery, and engage readers.


Examples of creative writing include poetry, short stories, novels, and plays, where authors have the freedom to explore their creativity and express themselves through literary techniques.


An analysis or evaluation of a piece of work, such as a book, film, artwork, or research paper. It involves providing a thoughtful and informed assessment of the strengths, weaknesses, merits, and shortcomings of the work.


A critique of a scientific article might assess the research methodology, data analysis, and the validity of the conclusions presented.


An organized collection of electronically stored data that can be accessed, managed, and analyzed. It is a structured system to store and retrieve information relevant to the assignment topic.


An online library catalog that stores information about books, their authors, and their availability.


Incorporating a relevant database in your academic assignments helps ensure your research's accuracy, reliability, and credibility. It enables you to access a wealth of information, perform advanced data analysis, and draw informed conclusions. It is essential to properly cite the database used to provide transparency and acknowledge your data sources.

Declarative Sentence

A sentence that makes a statement or expresses a fact, opinion, or idea. It ends with a period and is commonly used to convey information or make straightforward assertions.


Declarative sentences are the most common sentence type used in academic writing. They provide clear and concise information and form the basis for conveying ideas and arguments.


"The sun sets in the west." This sentence states a fact without posing a question or conveying a command.

Deductive Essay

A type of academic writing that presents a logical reasoning process. It starts with a general premise or statement (major premise), moves to a specific case or evidence (minor premise), and finally arrives at a conclusion based on the premises and evidence presented.


Deductive essays often follow a structured format and provide a persuasive line of reasoning from general principles to specific conclusions.


In a deductive essay about the effects of smoking, the major premise could be "Smoking is harmful to human health." The minor premise may present evidence like "John is a smoker." The conclusion would then follow logically: "Therefore, smoking is harmful to John's health."


Literal or dictionary definition of a word or term, without any additional connotations or associations. It focuses on the specific, objective meaning of a word.


The denotation of the word "home" refers to a place where someone lives, providing shelter and a sense of belonging.

Direct Quotation

The exact replication of someone's words or a text passage within quotation marks. It is used to provide evidence, support arguments, or showcase the original wording of a source.


Direct quotations add credibility and authenticity to academic writing. When using direct quotations, it is crucial to accurately attribute the source and follow the appropriate citation style guidelines.


"To be or not to be, that is the question." This is a direct quotation from Shakespeare's play Hamlet.


A substantial and in-depth research project completed as part of a doctoral degree program. It involves independent research, original contribution to the field of study, and the presentation of findings and analysis in a formal document.


Dissertations require extensive planning, critical thinking, and excellent organizational skills.


A student pursuing a Ph.D. in Psychology might conduct a dissertation on the effects of mindfulness meditation on stress reduction, involving data collection, analysis, and a comprehensive written report.

Double Spacing

A practice of inserting an extra blank line between each line of text in a document, resulting in a layout with more space between the lines. It is commonly used in academic writing and facilitates readability and the inclusion of handwritten or editorial comments.


When writing an essay or research paper, it is often recommended to format the document with double-spaced lines for improved readability and easier annotation.


The initial stage of writing where ideas and thoughts are translated into written form. It involves creating a rough version or preliminary outline of a document, which will later be revised and edited.


Drafting is a critical part of the writing process as it allows writers to generate and organize their ideas. It is important to focus on content rather than perfection during this stage, as revisions and improvements can be made in subsequent drafts.


Revising and refining a piece of writing to improve its clarity, coherence, organization, grammar, and overall quality. Effective editing is essential for producing polished and professional work. It involves careful review and attention to detail, resulting in more straightforward communication and a more engaging reading experience.


Correcting spelling errors, reordering paragraphs for better flow, and ensuring consistent use of tense are common editing tasks.


A citation or explanatory note placed at the end of a document or chapter, providing additional information or referencing sources. Including endnotes in your research or scholarly writing helps to acknowledge and provide evidence for your claims and allows readers to explore the referenced sources for more in-depth understanding.

Example of an endnote in the main body of the paper

"The prevalence of smartphones has significantly impacted communication patterns, with a notable increase in social media usage among teenagers."^1

Example of an endnote at the end of the paper (in the endnote section)

^1Johnson, A. (2022). The Effects of Smartphone Usage on Adolescent Social Behavior. Journal of Communication Studies, 45(2), 87-102.


A writer who specializes in composing essays, which are short literary or academic pieces of writing that express the author's thoughts, ideas, or arguments on a particular topic.

Essayists employ various writing styles and techniques to engage readers and convey their message effectively.


Information, facts, data, or examples that support a claim or statement. In academic writing, evidence is used to provide credibility, justify arguments, and convince the reader of the validity of a particular perspective.


When using evidence, it is important to ensure its relevance, accuracy, and proper citation.


In a research paper on the effects of exercise on mental health, evidence may include statistical data showing reduced anxiety levels among individuals who engage in physical activity, as well as quotes or references from reputable studies conducted in the field.

Exploratory Essay

A type of academic writing that investigates and examines a topic or issue from multiple angles, often without taking a definitive stance. It aims to explore different perspectives, gather information, and generate insights and potential solutions.


The focus is on the process of inquiry rather than providing a final conclusion.


An exploratory essay on the impact of social media on society might explore the benefits and drawbacks of increased connectivity, privacy concerns, the influence on interpersonal relationships, and the effects on mental health.

Expository Essay

A type of writing that aims to explain, clarify, or describe a specific topic or concept. It presents information, facts, or arguments in a clear, logical, and concise manner, without personal opinions or bias.


Expository essays are commonly used in academic settings to provide an objective analysis of a subject. They require solid research, organization, and effective communication skills to present complex ideas or information in an accessible and understandable way.


An expository essay on climate change might present scientific evidence, causes and effects, and potential solutions without expressing personal opinions or advocating for specific actions.

Field Research

Collection of primary data and information through direct observation, interviews, surveys, or experiments conducted in real-world settings. Field research provides firsthand, contextual information that cannot be obtained through other research methods. It often involves immersion in the subject matter and can offer valuable insights and discoveries.


A biologist studying the behavior of a particular bird species in its natural habitat by observing and recording its actions is an example of field research.

First Person

Refers to the use of personal pronouns (such as "I," "we," and "us") and the perspective of the writer or speaker in a text or speech. It is commonly used in personal narratives, reflections, and subjective writing.


"I believe that climate change is a pressing issue that requires immediate attention."


Using the first person can add a personal touch to your writing, but follow the guidelines of your assignment or academic institution, as some formal writing styles may discourage its use.

Five-Paragraph Essay

A structured form of academic writing that consists of an introduction paragraph, three body paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph. Each paragraph serves a specific purpose, such as presenting the main idea, supporting arguments, and providing a conclusion or summary.


In a five-paragraph essay about the importance of exercise, the introduction introduces the topic, the body paragraphs discuss different benefits of exercise (e.g., physical health, mental well-being, increased energy), and the conclusion overviews the main points and restates the thesis statement.


A central point or main idea of a piece of writing. It represents the specific aspect or argument that the author emphasizes and explores throughout the text, ensuring coherence and clarity.


In an essay discussing climate change, the focus might be on the economic impact of climate change on agriculture, specifically exploring the challenges faced by farmers and potential solutions.


A visual style or typeface used in written or printed text. It includes characteristics such as size, style, and spacing, which contribute to the overall appearance and readability of the written material.


Times New Roman, Arial, and Calibri are common fonts used in academic writing due to their readability and widespread acceptance. However, specific formatting guidelines may dictate the preferred font for a particular assignment or academic institution.


Additional pieces of information or references that appear at the bottom of a page in a document. They provide supplemental explanations, citations, or commentary without interrupting the main text flow.


Footnotes are often used in academic writing to provide additional context, acknowledge sources, or expand on certain points.


"According to John Smith, the concept of postmodernism challenges traditional notions of artistic expression and blurs the boundaries between different art forms.^1"
Footnote: ^1 Smith, John. "Postmodernism and Artistic Expression." Journal of Contemporary Aesthetics 45, no. 2 (2019): 89-105.
In this example, the superscript number "1" indicates the presence of a footnote. At the bottom of the page or at the end of the document, the corresponding footnote is provided.


The level of seriousness, decorum, and adherence to established conventions in written or spoken communication. It reflects the appropriate tone and style for a particular context or audience.


Different writing situations, such as academic papers or professional correspondence, require varying degrees of formality to convey ideas appropriately.


A business report typically requires a formal tone and precise language, while a personal email to a friend may adopt a more casual and conversational style.


A structured outline or conceptual structure. It provides a basis for organizing and developing ideas, arguments, or projects. It serves as a roadmap, ensuring logical progression and coherence.
Frameworks help writers or researchers conceptualize their work, identify key components, and maintain a clear structure. They provide a guide for organizing thoughts and ensuring that all necessary elements are addressed.


In a literature review, a framework may be used to categorize and analyze relevant studies based on common themes or research methodologies, providing a structured overview of the existing literature.


Freewriting is a technique used to generate ideas or overcome writer's block. It involves continuous and uninterrupted writing without concern for grammar, structure, or coherence. The aim is to stimulate creativity and tap into subconscious thoughts.


Before starting a research paper, engage in a 10-minute freewriting session, jotting down any thoughts or ideas related to the topic without worrying about organization or clarity.


A list of terms and their definitions, typically found at the end of a book, report, or document. It provides readers with a quick reference to key terms used within the text. When reading academic texts, referring to the glossary can help clarify unfamiliar terms and improve your understanding of the subject matter.


The glossary you are using on our website includes definitions for the most commonly used academic terms, such as "citation," "database," "font," etc.


A technique used at the beginning of an essay or speech to capture the reader's or audience's attention. It is designed to make the introduction engaging and compelling. Consider using an interesting fact, a thought-provoking question, or a vivid description to hook your audience.


"Imagine a world where technology has advanced to the point where humans can teleport instantaneously. This may sound like science fiction, but recent breakthroughs in quantum mechanics are bringing us closer to this reality."

Graphic Organizer

A visual tool or diagram that helps organize and structure information or ideas. It provides a visual representation of relationships, concepts, or data, aiding comprehension and the development of coherent thoughts.


A concept map is one type of graphic organizer that visually represents the relationships between different concepts or ideas. It can be used to outline the main themes of a research paper or connect various theories in a study.


A widely used citation style in academic writing. It requires citing sources throughout the text using the author's name and the publication year, accompanied by a full reference list at the end of the document.

Example of an in-text citation

According to Smith (2021), the impact of social media on society is significant.


Familiarize yourself with the specific guidelines of the Harvard referencing style used by your institution or professor to ensure accurate and consistent citations throughout your work.


A technique used at the beginning of an essay to engage attention. A well-crafted hook can make your essay more captivating and encourage readers to delve deeper into your arguments. Consider using a surprising statistic, an intriguing anecdote, or a thought-provoking question to hook your readers.


"Did you know that the average person spends more time on their phone daily than they do sleeping? This addiction to technology has profound implications for our society."


Clickable elements in digital documents or web pages that redirect users to another location, such as a different webpage, file, or section within the same document. They allow for easy access to additional resources, references, or related information, enhancing the user's experience and providing opportunities for in-depth exploration.


In an online article, hyperlinks may be embedded within the text to direct readers to relevant sources, further readings, or supporting evidence, enabling them to access additional information with a simple click.

In-Text Citation

The practice of citing sources within the body of a text, typically in academic writing. It provides brief information about the referenced source, such as the author's name, publication year, and page number, to give credit to the original author and enable readers to locate the complete reference in the bibliography or reference list.


Consult the specific citation style guide (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago) required by your institution for accurate formatting.


According to Johnson (2018), "The concept of leadership is multifaceted and encompasses various skills and qualities" (p. 25).

Inductive Reasoning

A logical process where general conclusions are drawn based on specific observations or evidence. It involves reasoning from particular instances to form a generalized understanding (moving from specific to general).


After observing several crows and noticing that they are all black, one might use inductive reasoning to conclude that all crows are black.


Inductive reasoning is based on probability and generalization, so it is important to recognize that conclusions may not always be valid in every case.

Informal Essay

A type of personal or conversational writing that adopts a casual and relaxed tone. It often explores personal experiences, opinions, or reflections on a particular subject without adhering to strict academic conventions.


Using informal language in academic writing is usually not welcomed because of it lacks formality and a more objective tone.


Specific assignments may encourage the use of informal language, such as personal reflections, diaries, or other assignment types that focus on student’s opinion. Consult with your instructor if you hesitate whether the use of informal writing is appropriate.


An opening section of a written work, such as an essay, research paper, or report. It provides an overview of the topic, introduces the main thesis or argument, and engages the reader's interest.


The introduction should provide the necessary background information and a clear roadmap of what to expect.


In an essay about climate change, the introduction may begin with a general statement or a compelling statistic to grab the reader's attention. It would then provide background information on the topic and end with a strong thesis statement that outlines the main arguments to be discussed in the essay.


Specialized terminology or language that is used within a particular field or profession. It consists of words or phrases unfamiliar to those outside the specific domain. Understanding jargon is crucial for effective communication within a particular field.


In the field of computer programming, jargon terms like "algorithm," "debugging," or "syntax" are commonly used.


Publications that contain scholarly articles, research papers, and other academic contributions. They serve as a platform for researchers and experts to share their findings and ideas with the academic community.


Journals are essential sources of reliable and peer-reviewed information, making them valuable resources for academic research.


The "Journal of Psychology" publishes research studies on various human behavior and cognition aspects.

Key/Supporting Details

Key details are specific pieces of information essential to understanding a concept, argument, or topic. Supporting details provide additional evidence or examples that strengthen the main ideas or claims.


In an article about climate change, key details could include rising global temperatures, melting polar ice caps, and increased frequency of extreme weather events. Supporting details might consist of specific studies, statistics, or personal anecdotes related to the topic.


Identifying key and supporting details helps to focus on the essential information and provides a stronger foundation for understanding complex topics.

Lab Report

A formal document that presents the methods, results, and analysis of a scientific experiment or investigation. It typically includes an introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusion.


A chemistry lab report might include information about the chemicals used, the procedures followed, the data collected, and the interpretation of the results.


Lab reports are crucial in scientific research as they allow others to replicate experiments and evaluate the validity of the findings.

Line Spacing

Vertical space between lines of text in a document. It determines the amount of space left between each line, affecting the overall readability and appearance of the text.


A document with single-line spacing has no extra space between lines, while double-line spacing provides a larger gap between each line.


Adjusting line spacing can improve readability and make reading and reviewing written work easier. Besides, the instructions may assign specific requirements to line spacing for your assignment.

Literature Review

A critical analysis and summary of existing research, scholarly articles, books, and other relevant sources on a specific topic. Literature reviews are essential to academic research papers, theses, and dissertations. They demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the existing literature in the field and help situate the student's own research within the broader scholarly conversation.


In a literature review on the effects of technology on education, the student would analyze and synthesize relevant studies and articles to assess the current state of knowledge, identify trends, and explore the strengths and weaknesses of previous research.

Loose Sentence

A sentence structure where the main idea or independent clause is presented at the beginning, followed by additional information or subordinate clauses. This results in a sentence that seems to "spill over" or continue beyond the main point.


Loose sentences are just one of many sentence structures students can use to convey their ideas effectively. Varying sentence structures can add depth and interest to the overall writing style.


"She walked into the room, her heart pounding with anticipation, a smile on her face, and greeted everyone warmly." In this loose sentence, the main idea is "She walked into the room," followed by additional details that enrich the description.

Main Claim

The main claim, also known as the thesis statement or central argument, is the primary assertion or proposition made in academic or persuasive writing. It represents the central idea that the author wants to support and explore throughout the work.


In an essay about the advantages of physical exercises, the main claim could be "Regular physical activity improves both physical and mental health."


The main claim provides focus and direction to an academic piece, and the supporting evidence should align with and reinforce it.


The blank space surrounding the text on a printed page. It provides a clear boundary between the text and the edge of the page, allowing for readability, annotations, and binding.


A typical margin setting for an academic document might be one inch, ensuring adequate space for notes or comments.


Margins are essential for maintaining readability in written documents and are included as formatting requirements in provided instructions.


A concise written document that is used to communicate important information, updates, or instructions within an academic institution or department. It serves as an internal communication tool to inform faculty, staff, or students about specific matters related to academic policies, administrative changes, or upcoming events.


The memo format typically includes headings, date, recipients, and a clear statement of purpose to ensure a clear and professional communication channel.


An academic memo might be used to remind students of registration deadlines or provide guidelines for submitting research proposals.


A statistical method used in research to combine and analyze the findings from multiple independent studies on a specific topic. It involves aggregating data and results from various studies to obtain a more comprehensive and reliable conclusion or effect size.


Meta-analysis provides a quantitative approach to analyzing large amounts of data, helping to identify patterns, trends, or discrepancies across multiple studies.


A meta-analysis of studies exploring the effectiveness of a specific medical treatment would involve the following:

  • Collecting data from various studies.
  • Analyzing the results collectively.
  • Determining the overall effect size or treatment outcome.


A systematic approach and techniques used in a research study. It outlines the overall research design, data collection methods, analysis procedures, and ethical considerations employed to answer research questions or achieve research objectives.

The methodology is a crucial component of any research project. It provides a clear framework for conducting the study, ensuring the reliability, validity, and ethical integrity of the research process.


The methodology section is commonly included in research papers, theses, and dissertations.


In a psychology study investigating the impact of a specific intervention on cognitive development, the methodology section would outline the research design (e.g., experimental or correlational), participant selection criteria, data collection methods (e.g., surveys, assessments), and statistical analysis techniques.


A style guide and format used in academic writing, particularly in the humanities. It provides guidelines for formatting papers, citing sources, and organizing bibliographic information.


MLA style specifies rules for citing sources in-text and on a Works Cited page and guidelines for formatting page layout, headings, and other elements of a paper.

Example of a reference entry

Smith, John. The Art of Writing. Oxford University Press, 2022.

Example of an in-text citation

According to John Smith, "the act of writing is a creative process that requires practice" (45).


In an MLA-formatted research paper, in-text citations would be used to acknowledge and attribute specific information to the original source, and a Works Cited page at the end of the paper would list the full bibliographic details of all the sources referenced in the text.


A storytelling technique used to present a sequence of events or experiences. It involves recounting a series of events logically and chronologically, often from a personal perspective.


A book that starts with "Once upon a time..." and describes the events of a character's journey uses narration.


Narration is a powerful tool in literature and other forms of storytelling, helping to engage the reader and compellingly convey information.

Open-Ended Question

A type of question that requires a thoughtful and detailed response. It prompts the respondent to provide their own ideas, opinions, or explanations rather than a simple "yes" or "no" answer.


"What are the advantages and disadvantages of renewable energy sources?" is an open-ended question because it encourages the respondent to provide a comprehensive response.


Open-ended questions are often used in academic settings to stimulate critical thinking and promote deeper analysis and discussion.


A referencing style commonly used in legal academic writing. It provides rules and guidelines for citing legal authorities, such as cases, statutes, books, and journal articles, consistently and accurately.

Example of a reference entry

Book: Smith, John. The Law of Contracts. 3rd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2022.

Example of an in-text citation

According to Smith (2022), forming a contract requires a valid offer and acceptance.


In-text citations in OSCOLA typically use the author's name and the year of publication, allowing readers to locate the reference in the bibliography or footnotes. (Smith, 2022)


A structured framework or plan that organizes the main ideas, arguments, and supporting points of a written work. It serves as a roadmap for organizing thoughts, ensuring logical flow, and maintaining coherence in academic papers, research projects, or presentations.


Outlines can be as simple as a hierarchical list or more detailed with subheadings and bullet points.


Before writing an essay on the causes of climate change, a student might create an outline that includes the introduction, main body paragraphs covering different causes (e.g., greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation), and a concluding paragraph summarizing the key points.


A concise summary or a broad outline of a topic, subject, or body of work. It offers a high-level perspective and highlights the main points or key features without delving into intricate details.


Overviews are commonly used in academic papers, reports, or presentations to introduce a topic or give a summary of the main ideas.


In a research paper on artificial intelligence, the introduction section may include an overview of the field, highlighting its significance, major applications, and potential ethical implications. This overview sets the stage for a more in-depth exploration of the topic in subsequent sections of the paper.


Restating information or ideas from a source using your own words and sentence structure while maintaining the original meaning. It involves expressing someone else's ideas in a new and unique way.


Original sentence: "Climate change is a pressing global issue that requires immediate action."
Paraphrased sentence: "Addressing the urgency of climate change is crucial worldwide and necessitates prompt measures."


Paraphrasing is an essential skill in academic writing as it demonstrates your understanding of the source material while avoiding plagiarism.

Passive Voice

A grammatical construction where the subject is acted upon by the verb. It often emphasizes the receiver of the action rather than the doer.


In academic writing, using passive voice should be reasonable and intentional. While passive voice can be appropriate in specific contexts, active voice is generally preferred for clarity, directness, and more engaging writing.


Active voice: "The researcher conducted the experiment."
Passive voice: "The experiment was conducted by the researcher."

Peer Review

A process where experts in a particular field evaluate and assess the quality, validity, and significance of scholarly work, such as research papers, before publication. It involves subjecting the work to critical examination by peers who provide feedback and recommendations for improvement.


Before a research article is published in a scientific journal, it goes through a peer review process where other scientists in the same field review and evaluate the study's methodology, results, and conclusions.


Peer review plays a crucial role in maintaining the quality and integrity of academic research, ensuring that it meets the standards of the scholarly community.

Pivotal Points

Crucial or significant moments, events, or concepts within a narrative, argument, or analysis. They represent critical junctures that considerably impact the overall trajectory or understanding of the subject.


In a historical analysis of the American Civil Rights Movement, pivotal points may include the Montgomery Bus Boycott or the March on Washington, as these events profoundly influenced the movement's progression.


An act of presenting someone else's ideas, words, or work as one's own without giving proper credit or attribution. It is considered a serious academic offense and a violation of intellectual integrity and ethics. Students and researchers must understand how to cite and reference sources to avoid unintentional plagiarism. Institutions often provide guidelines and resources to help students learn how to attribute and acknowledge the work of others appropriately.


Copying and pasting paragraphs from an online source without citation or paraphrasing another author's work without proper attribution are typical examples of plagiarism.

Plain Language

A style of writing that prioritizes clarity, simplicity, and accessibility. It involves using straightforward and concise language, avoiding jargon, and presenting information in a manner that a broad audience can easily understand.


Rather than using convoluted sentences and technical terms, plain language encourages expressing ideas clearly and concisely, using everyday language accessible to a general audience.


A statement or proposition that forms the basis or foundation for a logical argument or theory. It is a starting point from which conclusions or arguments can be developed.


In an essay arguing for implementing renewable energy policies, a premise could be: "Climate change poses significant environmental challenges and requires immediate action to reduce carbon emissions."


An initial stage of the writing process where ideas are brainstormed, organized, and planned before drafting the actual piece of writing. It involves generating ideas, outlining, researching, and organizing thoughts.


Prewriting may include:

  • Creating an outline.
  • Researching to gather supporting evidence.
  • Brainstorming ideas through freewriting or mind mapping.
  • Making a list of key points to be addressed in the writing.

Primary Sources

Original materials or first-hand accounts of events, data, or information. They provide direct evidence or first-hand knowledge of a subject, often created by individuals who directly experienced or witnessed the documented events. Primary sources are highly valued in academic research as they offer authentic and unfiltered information from the studied time or context.


Some examples of primary sources may include diaries, letters, speeches, original research studies, photographs, interviews, or official government documents from a specific time or historical event.


A process of carefully reviewing a written document for errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and syntax. It aims to identify and correct mistakes or inconsistencies to improve the clarity and readability of the text.


Explore free online editing tools to improve your writing, such as Grammarly.


A formal document that outlines a plan or suggestion for a research project, academic study, or business venture. It presents the proposed endeavor's purpose, objectives, methodology, and expected outcomes.


Proposals are standard in academic and professional settings to secure approval, funding, or support for a particular project. They demonstrate the proposed undertaking's feasibility, significance, and potential impact.


A student may submit a research proposal to a professor or funding agency outlining their research question, the scope of the study, the methodology to be employed, and the expected contributions of the research to the field.


An underlying intention or goal of a piece of writing. It clarifies the reason for writing and the desired outcome or impact on the audience.


Identifying the purpose of writing helps students maintain focus, structure their arguments, and tailor their content to the intended audience. The purpose can be informative, persuasive, analytical, or exploratory.


The purpose of an informative essay might be to educate readers about a specific scientific discovery, while the purpose of a persuasive essay could be to convince the audience to take action on a particular social issue.


Words or phrases used in academic writing to add precision, specificity, or caution to statements. They help to indicate the degree of certainty, limitation, or scope of an argument or claim.


"Some studies suggest that exercise may improve cognitive function." Here, "some" is a qualifier acknowledging that not all studies reach the same conclusion.


Qualifiers are important in academic writing as they allow for nuanced and balanced arguments, acknowledging the complexities and variations within a topic.

Qualitative Research

A methodological approach in academic research that aims to understand and interpret complex phenomena by exploring subjective experiences, meanings, and perspectives. It typically involves data collection techniques such as interviews, observations, or textual analysis.


Conducting interviews with cancer survivors to explore their lived experiences and coping strategies is an example of qualitative research in the field of psychology.


Qualitative research provides rich and in-depth insights into the human experience, often uncovering nuances and contextual factors that quantitative analysis may not capture.

Quantitative Research

A research method that collects and analyzes numerical data to uncover patterns, relationships, and trends. It involves systematic approaches such as surveys, experiments, or statistical analysis to generate objective and measurable findings.
Quantitative research provides a structured and empirical approach to studying phenomena and testing hypotheses. It allows researchers to draw statistical inferences and make generalizations based on numerical data, providing insights into the magnitude and significance of relationships between variables.


Surveying with a large sample size to measure public opinion on a political issue is an example of quantitative research. The survey responses are quantified using statistical methods to provide numerical insights and statistical significance.


A research instrument consisting of a set of structured questions designed to collect data from participants. It is used in quantitative and qualitative research to gather information on specific topics, attitudes, opinions, or behaviors.


Questionnaires can be administered through various methods, such as online surveys or in-person interviews, and help gather quantitative and qualitative data depending on the questions.


A researcher designing a questionnaire to assess customer satisfaction in a retail setting would include questions about the quality of service, product selection, and overall shopping experience. The questionnaire would allow participants to rate their satisfaction numerically or provide open-ended responses.


An inclusion of exact words or phrases from a source, enclosed within quotation marks. Quotations are used to provide evidence, support arguments, or give credit to the original author's words or ideas.


When using direct quotations, it is essential to attribute the source correctly, follow citation guidelines, and ensure that the quoted material is relevant, accurately represented, and adequately integrated into the student's work.


In an essay discussing the impact of climate change, a student might include a quotation from a scientific study: "According to Smith et al. (2018), 'The rising global temperatures pose significant threats to ecosystems and biodiversity.'" The quotation provides direct evidence from the source to support the author's argument.


References, also known as citations or bibliographic entries, are the details of the sources used in academic writing. They provide readers with the necessary information to locate and verify the original works cited in an essay, research paper, or scholarly publication.


In an APA format reference, a book citation might include the author's name, publication year, book title, publisher, and location.


Accurate and consistent referencing is essential in academic writing to acknowledge other authors' contributions and maintain academic integrity. Follow the required referencing style to format your work appropriately.

Reflective Writing

A form of writing that encourages self-examination, exploration of personal experiences, thoughts, and emotions. It involves thoughtful analysis and introspection to gain insights, draw connections, and develop a deeper understanding of oneself or a particular subject.


Writing a reflective essay on a recent community service experience and discussing the lessons learned and personal growth achieved.


Reflective writing promotes critical thinking and self-awareness, allowing students to engage with their learning experiences more deeply. Using informal language is generally permitted for these assignment types.


A structured document that presents factual information, findings, or analysis on a specific topic. Reports are typically based on research, investigations, or observations and aim to provide clear and concise information to readers.


Reports follow a specific format, including sections such as introduction, methods, results, and conclusion, allowing readers to understand the information easily.


A lab report in the field of chemistry would include details about the experiment conducted, the materials and methods used, the data collected, and the analysis of the results. It would provide a comprehensive overview of the experiment's purpose and outcomes.

Research Paper

An academic document that presents the results of original research or the analysis of existing scholarly work. It demonstrates a student's ability to conduct in-depth research, critically evaluate sources, and contribute to a specific field of study.


Research papers often follow a specific structure: an introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion.


A research paper in sociology might investigate the relationship between socioeconomic status and educational attainment, examining existing studies, collecting survey data, and using statistical analysis to draw conclusions and support the writer's argument.

Response Essay

A type of academic writing that presents the student's response or reaction to a specific text, article, or prompt. It involves analyzing the content, expressing thoughts, and providing critical evaluation or interpretation.


Response essays often require supporting arguments or evidence to back up the student's perspective and may incorporate elements of personal reflection.


In a response essay to a literary work, students might discuss their emotional connection to the characters, analyze the themes presented, and provide personal insights into the author's message or writing style.


A concise document that summarizes an individual's education, work experience, skills, and achievements. It is used primarily in job applications or academic contexts to highlight qualifications and suitability for a particular position or opportunity.


Explore various online tools to create a winning résumé.


A résumé for a job application includes personal information, education, work experience, skills, and relevant achievements. It would highlight the applicant's most significant accomplishments and demonstrate their qualifications for the desired position.


A critical evaluation or assessment of a book, article, or other scholarly work. It involves analyzing the material's strengths, weaknesses, and overall quality and providing a thoughtful and informed opinion.


A review of a scientific article would involve the following:

  • Analyzing the methodology.
  • Evaluating the validity of the results.
  • Assessing the study's contribution to the field.

The review would provide a balanced critique and recommend further research or improvements.


The art of effective communication and persuasion. In academia, it refers to the study and use of language, style, and techniques to persuade, influence, or engage an audience in various forms of discourse.

Rhetoric encompasses logical reasoning, emotional appeal, and persuasive language to convey meaning and influence the audience's perception or understanding.


A persuasive essay that utilizes rhetorical strategies would employ logical arguments, emotional appeals, and vivid language to persuade of a specific viewpoint or course of action.


A scoring guide or set of criteria used to evaluate and assess the quality and performance of student assignments, projects, or presentations. It provides clear expectations and standards for grading or feedback.


A rubric for assessing a research paper might include criteria such as organization, clarity of argument, use of evidence, grammar, punctuation, and overall presentation. Each measure would have different levels of achievement, allowing the evaluator to provide specific feedback.

Running Head

A brief title or shortened version of the main title located at the top of each page in an academic document, such as a research paper or thesis.


Running heads typically include the document title or an abbreviated version of it, along with the page number.


A running head for a research paper titled "The Impact of Climate Change on Biodiversity" could be "Climate Change and Biodiversity," appearing at the top of each page, along with the page number.

Scholarship Essay

A written piece of work that students submit as part of their application for a scholarship. It is an opportunity for students to showcase their achievements, goals, and personal qualities to convince the selection committee that they deserve the scholarship.


In a scholarship essay, a student might discuss their academic achievements, extracurricular involvement, and future aspirations, demonstrating why they are an ideal candidate for the scholarship.

Second Person

A point of view in writing that addresses the reader directly. It uses pronouns like "you" and "your" to involve the reader and create a personal connection.


"In your essay, you should present a clear thesis statement and support it with evidence and examples."


The second person is not commonly used in academic writing, as it tends to be more informal. It is important to follow the conventions of the specific academic discipline and style guide when determining the appropriate point of view.

Secondary Source

A document or work that analyzes, interprets, or discusses primary sources. It provides an analysis or commentary on original research or events conducted by others.

Secondary sources are valuable in research as they offer perspectives, interpretations, and discussions that help contextualize primary sources. They often provide critical analysis, synthesis, or evaluation of existing information and can contribute to a deeper understanding of a topic.


An academic article that reviews and analyzes multiple research studies on the effects of exercise on mental health would be considered a secondary source. It draws upon and synthesizes the findings of primary research studies conducted by other researchers.

Single Spacing

A formatting style where there is no additional space between lines of text. It is commonly used in academic writing to conserve space and create a compact presentation of information.


Single spacing can make the text appear more dense and compact, suitable for certain academic documents. However, it is important to consider readability and the guidelines the instructor or publisher provides regarding spacing.


When writing a research paper with limited page requirements, you may use single spacing to maximize the content that can be included within the given page limit.


Materials, references, or citations used to gather information, support arguments, or provide evidence in academic writing. They can include books, scholarly articles, websites, interviews, or other relevant materials.


Properly citing and referencing sources is essential to acknowledge the intellectual contributions of others, avoid plagiarism, and allow readers to access the original material.


When writing an essay on the history of World War II, sources might include:

  • Books by renowned historians.
  • Scholarly articles on the subject.
  • Archived documents.
  • First-hand accounts from individuals who lived through the war.


A formal presentation or oral communication delivered by a student to convey information, persuade an audience, or share ideas on a specific topic. In academic settings, speeches may be delivered as part of presentations, debates, or public speaking assignments.


A student presenting a persuasive speech on the importance of renewable energy sources might use statistical data, expert opinions, and compelling arguments to convince the audience to adopt more sustainable practices.


A topic of a text, essay, research paper, or discussion. It represents the subject matter that is being addressed or studied.

The subject provides the central theme or idea around which the content revolves. It helps establish the scope and purpose of the academic work, guiding the student's exploration and the reader's understanding.


In a literature review on the effects of social media on mental health, the subject would be the relationship between social media usage and psychological well-being.


A more minor, specific topic that falls under the broader subject or main topic. It provides a narrower focus within a larger subject area. Subtopics help organize and structure academic writing by breaking down complex matters into more manageable components.


In a research paper on climate change, subtopics could include the impact of climate change on coastal regions, the role of deforestation in exacerbating global warming, or the effectiveness of renewable energy policies in mitigating climate change.

Supporting Details

Specific pieces of information, evidence, or examples that help substantiate or provide further explanation for a central idea or argument in academic writing. They offer supporting evidence to strengthen the author's claims.


In an essay arguing for the benefits of regular exercise, supporting details could include studies showing reduced risk of heart disease, personal testimonials from individuals who have experienced improved well-being, and scientific explanations of the physiological effects of exercise.

Supporting Evidence

Factual information, data, research findings, or expert opinions that reinforce or validate an argument or claim made in academic writing. It provides objective support for the student's assertions.


In a research paper investigating the relationship between smoking and lung cancer, supporting evidence would include the following:

  • Statistical data from studies linking smoking to increased cancer risk.
  • Expert opinions from medical professionals.
  • References to published research articles.

Surface Error

A mistake or flaw in grammar, punctuation, spelling, or other technical aspects of language. It is typically a minor error that does not affect the overall meaning or coherence of the text.


A surface error could be a misspelled word, a missing comma, or an incorrectly used verb tense in an otherwise well-written research paper.


A process of combining or integrating multiple sources or ideas to create a coherent and original understanding or argument. It involves analyzing, evaluating, and connecting different pieces of information to generate new insights.


Synthesis requires the identification of relationships between sources, the recognition of patterns or themes, and the construction of a cohesive narrative or argument.


In a literature review, synthesis would involve analyzing and synthesizing the findings, methodologies, and key arguments from multiple studies on a specific topic to identify trends, gaps, or areas for further research.

Term Paper

A written assignment typically required at the end of a course or semester. It allows students to showcase their understanding of a particular subject or topic by researching, presenting arguments, and demonstrating critical thinking skills.


In a history class, a term paper may involve analyzing primary sources and secondary literature to provide an in-depth analysis of a historical event or period.


Term papers require careful planning, extensive research, and effective organization. Start early to avoid last-minute stress!


A substantial written work presenting the author's unique research and findings on a chosen topic. It is commonly required for advanced degrees such as a Master's or Ph.D.


A student pursuing a Master's degree in Psychology might conduct a study on the effects of meditation on stress levels and write a thesis presenting their research methodology, results, and conclusions.


Theses involve a significant amount of time and effort. Choosing a topic you're passionate about and staying committed throughout the research process is essential.

Thesis Statement

A concise and declarative sentence that expresses the main argument or point of an essay or research paper. It serves as a roadmap for the reader and focuses on the overall work.


In an essay discussing the benefits of exercise, a thesis statement could be: "Regular physical activity contributes to improved mental health, increased energy levels, and reduced risk of chronic diseases."


A strong thesis statement clearly states the main idea of your paper and guides your writing. Make sure it is specific, arguable, and supported by evidence.

Third Person

A writing perspective in which the narrator or author refers to characters using pronouns like "he," "she," or "they." It creates distance between the writer and the subject, presenting events objectively.


"She walked down the street, noticing the vibrant colors of the flowers and the sound of children playing nearby."


The third person is commonly used in academic and formal writing. Remember to maintain consistency in your writing style and avoid shifting between different perspectives.


The writer's attitude or emotion towards the subject matter conveyed through their writing. It influences the overall mood and impacts the reader.


A humorous tone may be used in a satirical essay to criticize societal norms or practices. For instance, "The absurdity of using your pet hamster as a life coach cannot be overstated."


Paying attention to the tone of your writing helps create the desired effect on the reader. Consider the appropriate tone based on your work's subject, audience, and purpose.


A word, phrase, or sentence that connects different parts of a text or writing, helping readers smoothly navigate from one idea or section to another. Transitions enhance coherence and logical flow in a piece of writing.


"Furthermore," "In addition," and "On the other hand" are examples of transitions used to link ideas in an essay or research paper.


Ensure that transitions are used appropriately and avoid overusing them.


A specific style guide for academic writing, based on The Chicago Manual of Style. It provides guidelines for formatting and citing sources in research papers, theses, and dissertations, often used in the humanities.

Example of a reference entry

Smith, John. The History of Ancient Rome. New York: Oxford University Press, 2019.

Example of an in-text citation

According to Smith (2019, 45), the rise of Julius Caesar marked a turning point in Roman history.


Following the Turabian style requires including footnotes or endnotes for in-text citations and using the bibliography page to list the sources consulted. Please note that the Turabian style differs depending on the source type (e.g., books, articles, websites) and citation format (footnotes, endnotes, or author-date).


A citation and referencing style that is commonly used in health sciences and biomedical research. It is based on the guidelines established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

Example of a reference entry

Smith J. The Impact of Exercise on Cardiovascular Health. Journal of Cardiology. 2022;15(3):150-165. doi:10.1234/joc.123456

Example of an in-text citation

Regular physical activity has been shown to improve cardiovascular health (Smith 2022).


Note that in Vancouver style, superscript numbers are typically used in-text for referencing sources rather than author-date citations. The superscript number corresponds to the numbered reference entry in the reference list.

Understanding the Vancouver style is crucial for researchers in the health sciences field. Consult the official Vancouver style guide or your institution's guidelines for accurate formatting.


A factor or element that can vary or change in a research study or experiment. It is a measurable or observable characteristic that researchers manipulate, measure, or analyze to understand its impact on the study's outcomes.


In a study on the effects of sleep on memory, the independent variable would be the amount of sleep, while the dependent variable would be the participants' memory performance.


Identifying and defining variables is fundamental to conducting research. Clearly defining your variables ensures the accuracy and replicability of the study.

Vivid Language

Using descriptive and sensory words or phrases to create a clear and engaging image in the reader's mind. It adds depth, detail, and emotional impact to written or spoken communication.


"The radiant sun dipped below the horizon, casting a golden glow across the tranquil, emerald sea" is an example of vivid language used to describe a scenic view.


Incorporating vivid language can make your writing more engaging and memorable. However, use it judiciously and consider the context to balance description and clarity.

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