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Conspiracy theories arise as a result of stress, uncertainty, or danger. Countries throughout the world come up with different conspiracy theories accordingly. The paper elaborates conspiracy theories approach in West and Middle East. The assassination of the U.S President John F. Kennedy, 9/11 attacks, Pearl Harbor, Pan Am Flight, and War for Oil are few of historical conspiratorial events that are the result of conspiracy theories implemented by the powerful authorities.
History of Conspiracy Theory
There are some conspiracy theories with varying explanations throughout the history. Conspiracy theory can be explained as an event that provokes a conspiracy without any warning. Moreover, government or powerful actors play an essential role in contributing to conspiratorial events. An illegal or harmful act is carried out by the government or powerful actors (Knight 3).
The conspiracy theories rely on three fundamental principles including nothing happens accidentally, situations are not what they appear to be, and everything is well connected. However, conspiracy theories have one definite definition throughout the world, but still every country or part of the region has its way of implementing conspiracy theory. West and the Middle East have own set of conspiracy theories along with prominent incidents attached to them. Conspiracy theories include multiple conspirators that are proved to be correct. For instance, Watergate conspiracy theory presented some hypotheses in which convicted were the real victims of a deeper conspiracy. Moreover, evil forces or cunning conspirators use power to achieve a malevolent end by an event that is secretly plotted. The history is full of incidents that explain varying degrees of conspiracy theories (Knight 4).
In both texts, the United States is involved in spreading fear and terror among people. In one text, America is targeting its people and creating doubts and fears regarding the weak immune system by introducing vaccine campaigns that are ineffective and unsafe. On the other hand, America is creating terror in the Middle East region by creating a war on terror. The United States is trying to justify killings of numerous American soldiers’ along with innocent citizens by presenting baseless facts by fighting the war on terror. However, both texts have a different public sphere (Knight 5).
Profits Not Science Motivate Vaccine Mandates
Politicizing of vaccines is the reason behind risks that people encounter. It is believed that vaccines help in developing immunity by emulating an infection. However, vaccines are risky, and no proper evidence is available regarding its effectiveness and stability. Drug companies persuade lawmakers to pass bill or demand financial aid to carry out certain campaigns to improve the health of children. Vaccine mandates that are formulated by government reflect financial interests of pediatricians and other officials.
Vaccines have been considered as one of the most modern technological advances. However, there is evidence that claims vaccines to be ineffective. Powerful actors try to collect as much capital by emphasizing the importance of vaccine mandates. In reality, mandates are a mere way to gain profits rather than immunizing public against measles, flu, and chicken pox. Special interests including financial gains by claiming millions of bills push for mandatory vaccines for children. Merck campaign for chicken pox is a complete ineffectual package for the public from medical and health-care perspectives. However, an increased interest of legislators towards passing a bill for vaccine mandates and campaigns indicates the underlying conspiratorial motives (Byford 13).
The ulterior motive behind such campaigns is profits rather than advancement in science or improvement of health among children. The vaccination campaigns lack efficacy and safety. Controversies and conspiracies are involved in making people believe about the effectiveness of such campaigns. Profits Not Science Motivate Vaccine Mandates constitutes a conspiracy theory because the crux of the text extensively explains profits to be an essential motive of pediatricians, drug companies, and lawmakers is to make money rather than improving the health of children. Chicken pox is a mild childhood disease that does not result in death. The point of collecting millions for carrying out campaign indicates illegal profits and financial gains of the vaccine industry (Byford 44).
It does not make sense to vaccinate against a mild disease with vaccination campaigns that can result in serious injury or death. Thus conspiracies are involved in using lawmakers to pass a bill for vaccination campaigns. Big Pharma influence and money cause epidemic of corruption in governmental agencies. There is a need for creating awareness among the public by drafting clear informed consents by lawmakers. There lies a wide gap in fully vaccinated children and improvement in health and economic conditions of families. The type of conspiracy theory that involves lawmakers to consider such campaigns lies under the category of grand, old, and implausible (Knight 55).
There is no ground evidence to prove whether chicken pox vaccination campaigns are effective or not. However, such campaigns have proved to be ineffective and of no use to children health. It is an old type of conspiracy theory which is deeply rooted in drugs companies’ mandates. Controversies that revolve around vaccines came into being 80 years before vaccination campaigns even started. Moreover, conspiracies that linked vaccination to health improvement among children is as old as inoculation itself. The number of drug companies taking an interest in vaccination campaigns indicates the grand type of conspiracy. Moreover, the vaccination campaigns that claim to provide an improvement in health are based on conspiracy theories that lie under the implausible. There is no convincing explanation of need of vaccination against mild childhood disease. However, the motive behind such campaigns is clear that is financial gains and profits (Knight 66).
The vaccination campaigns lack a plausible explanation of eradicating a mild childhood disease from roots. The conspiracy theory is nested with the wider political worldview. The vaccination campaigns are becoming a wide spreading phenomenon throughout the world. Legislators and lawmakers are involved in passing out bills and budget plans for the vaccination campaigns throughout the world. The political perspective of conspiracy theories in vaccination campaigns elaborates that these theories have become a part of ideology. A set of ideas that explain the political and social phenomenon and create a correlation between theory and ideology to convince people to consider campaigns an effective way to eliminate chicken pox (Byford 77).
The conspiracy theories involved in vaccination mandates are deeply nestled with the ideology. These theories are supported by state laws that make it compulsory for citizens to acquire certain immunizations. Vaccination campaigns are not only limited to chicken pox but also autism, measles, diphtheria, and various other diseases. However, all such campaigns have become part of the political ideology. Ideologists have been involved in advocating conspiracy theories linked to vaccination campaigns (Knight 85).
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Citizens in the United States consider vaccination campaigns to be unnecessary or harmful for children. Parents hold skepticism against campaigns and believe children’s immune system is enough to protect them from diseases. However, the political and cultural perspective of vaccination favors campaigns and mandates regardless of its effectiveness and safety. Parents’ reluctance to vaccination campaigns is dependent on several beliefs that are part of culture. Distrust of governmental authorities along with pharmaceutical companies among parents contribute to skepticism. However, political ideology influences beliefs about vaccination campaigns in conflicting ways. Liberals have always opposed the vaccination movement. Government forces vaccination campaigns, whereas holistic and homeopathic medicine, have always opposed vaccination campaigns trend throughout the world (Byford 90).
The particular ideology of government for improving health and immune system by vaccination campaigns contradicts. State conservatives and liberals do not accept vaccination campaigns due to an absence of trust regarding scientific traditions. However political stance of vaccination campaign is linked with conspiracy theories that justify mandates. Despite active anti- vaccination movement, vaccination campaigns are deeply embedded in the political ideology of states that consider it a way to eliminate children diseases. Meanwhile, behind the façade of improving the immune system, the vaccination industry is making plenty of profits. The conspiracy theories linked with vaccination intend to identify problems due to weakening immune system among children that result in diseases like whooping cough and chickenpox (Byford 110).
These campaigns try to solve the serious issues and threats posed by chickenpox and other diseases. In retrospect, all such campaigns claiming to identify problems and providing a solution to problems have failed to satisfy citizens of the United States. Parents show higher degrees of skepticism towards vaccination mandates. The advisory committee on immunization practices is involved in recommending vaccines to the American children. However, conspiracy theories elaborate motives and objectives of officials for vaccination campaigns. Officials claiming to eliminate diseases among children try to gain profits rather than providing an effective solution to problems. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provide guidelines to the state legislators to allow funding for vaccines. Moreover, CDC gives financial bounties to health departments for fully vaccinated children. Therefore, it results into increased conspiracies fueled by health departments to gain financial profits (Byford 24).
The text in the “Profits Not Science Motivates Vaccine Mandates” elaborates that officials behind mandates are more concerned about profits rather than advancement in science and technology. Moreover, the conspiracy theories that are implemented by powerful officials are based purely on monetary benefits. For instance, Merck’s campaign to enact a chickenpox vaccine mandate was entirely a gimmick of the company to receive money from Illinois Children’s health coalition. The public sphere in the “Profits Not Science Motivates Vaccine Mandates” purely belongs to the United States. All grand, implausible, and old types of conspiracy theories have explained the ulterior motives of powerful actors in formulating vaccine mandates including financial profits being the top most priority (Knight 88).
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America’s Conspiracies to Spread Terrorism in the Region
Since 9/11 attacks, the United States have been involved in fueling numerous conspiracy theories to initiate a war on terror in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, and other countries in the Middle East. Pentagon in America in a report concluded Pakistan failed to take adequate actions against terrorism in the region. The United States claim to safeguard its interests by initiating the war against terrorism. The conspiracy theories reflect that the presence of Al-Qaida and Pakistani Taliban posed threats to the United States which led to the declaration of the war on terror. However, it is believed that the powerful officials are influenced by conspiratorial factors including increased control over the Middle East by initiating war on terror (Knight 110).
The apparent major motive behind the war on terror is supposed to be the promotion of peace throughout the world. However, the conspiracy theories along with the political notions, it is believed the real motive behind the war on terror is to invade the Middle East. Due to increased terrorist attacks which resulted in killings of 475 security officers of Pakistan, it was believed the U.S- Pakistan relations would be highly affected. Moreover, the United States institutions try to support conspiracy theories by blaming Pakistan’s ineffectiveness to control the situation and proposing the presence of the American forces in the middle east to eradicate terrorism from the very ground. America’s stance to blame Pakistan’s lack of cooperation is conspiratorial (Byford 48).
The United States justifies its presence in Afghanistan by blaming Pakistan for its inability to fight against terrorism. The United States population is in the presence of the U.S troops in the Middle East specifically Afghanistan. However, as part of conspiracy theories, the government is deceiving its public by blaming other forces responsible for the intervention of the United States in the Middle East. The United States officials justify the conspiracy theories involved in justifying drone attacks and killings of thousands of people. An explanation justifies that all countries that constitute the Middle East are incapable of maintaining peace and there is need of intervention by a superpower like the United States to promote peace (Byford 38).
The America’s Conspiracies to Spread Terrorism in the Region constitutes a conspiracy theory. It extensively explains the motives of the United States to dispatch troops in the Middle East. The United States decision to send soldiers post 9/11 attacks to uproot terrorism in Afghanistan and Pakistan has been useless. Moreover, the terrorism has increased the presence of the United States. After 15 years, the United States has failed to sustain peace in the Middle East. Furthermore, the type of conspiracy theories that are employed by the United States is grand, old, and plausible. Theories are plausible in the sense that they provide a rationale and strong conviction points for invading Afghanistan (Knight 47).
The plausible explanation for such invasion is 9/11 attacks. However, it is believed that 9/11 attacks are part of grand conspiracy theory that resulted in invading the entire Middle East region. 9/11 itself is an inside job along with integral part of conspiracy theories that influenced the United States to initiate the war on terror. It is believed as part of American conspiracy that powerful officials are interested in more exploitative roles than just fighting terrorism. The United States has created insecurity and terrorism in the region rather than eradicating it. Moreover, it is believed the essential motive behind the war on terrorism is America’s efforts towards invading natural resources in the region. The conspiracy theories have been deeply embedded in the political ideology (Knight 48).
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The political perspective of the war on terrorism is based on personal interests and gains of the United States. The conspiracy theory behind the war on terrorism is deeply nestled with wider political worldview. Particular ideology supported by the American government is to promote peace in the region. Hence the decision of invasion. Conspiracy theories that claim to solve the terrorism issue in the region are hidden motives of powerful officials to achieve the desired outcome of some event. In real, the only motive is to gain more power and control of autonomy in the region. The conspiracy theory intends to identify severe problems in the region including increasing number of terrorist activities. The solution proposed by powerful authorities through conspiracy theories to these problems is sending soldiers to affected areas and fighting a war against terror. In retrospect, such solutions proposed by the United States failed to solve the problem rather created several other problems in the region (Byford 49).
The public sphere in the text is a population of the Middle East along with the United States. People in the United States can discuss and come to the conclusion of demanding the government to withdraw troops from the Middle East region, whereas the population of the Middle East can influence political parties to demand the removal of troops from the region. Conspiracy theories that have become part of the political ideology tend to be harmful in both texts (Knight 50).
Comparison of the West and Middle East Conspiracy Theories
The conspiracy theories that result in events and situations that provide a malevolent end to official authorities are nearly same in the West and the Middle East. The conspiratorial factors are same. However, interests shift from financial to control gains. The conspiracy theories indicate the paranoid style in American politics to gain desired interests. Moreover, conspiracy theories formulated by the American politics result into harming general population. The government of the United States has a paranoid political style which results in conspiratorial events like vaccination campaigns or the war on terror (Knight 56).
In essence, the United States is playing a key role in the West and the Middle East in pursuing conspiratorial goals. However, the affected population differs in both sets of conspiracy theories. In the case of medical myopia, the United States along with other powerful actors is targeting the health of children, whereas in the Middle East the affected population is the entire human race that resides in the region. However, the motives are similar including financial gains along with control over resources available in the Middle East (Knight 57).
It is believed that majority of conspiracy theories followed by conspiratorial events occurring in the Middle East have one major goal to attain that is to gain access to natural resources. Historian Richard J. Hofstadter has explained the paranoid style of the United States politics which is evident in all conspiracy theories formulated till date. Hofstadter has tried to elaborate the influence of conspiracy theory throughout American history. According to Hofstadter, political individuals that formed a left-wing movement of the 1890s were involved in presenting paranoid delusion of a conspiracy by money power. Conspiracy theories are work of delusion by powerful actors that result in conspiratorial events. The conspiratorial events are a production of great authorities to deceive population. Moreover, both texts have entirely different outcomes, but they are influenced by conspiracy theories that are formulated by similar powerful authorities. The conspiracies behind vaccine campaigns and increased control over the Middle East have resulted into confusions among people regarding systems (Knight 58).
All these conspiracy theories lack morality. There is an absence of rules and principles concerning the wellbeing of people. Officials that formulate such theories claim all events to be moral and rational, but in real these theories have afflicted people in many ways. Moreover, conspiracy theories are rendered to be superstitious as explained by Karl Popper. History is littered with successful as well poor conspiracy theories. Popper criticized conspiracy theories and believed them to be superstition. Conspiracy theories which have been part of various conspiratorial events including 9/11 and vaccination campaigns lack morality. There is no rationale for invading the Middle East. Also, conspiracy theories involved in events like 9/11 have been harmful to the entire human race. Thousands of people have been killed as a result of conspiracy theories that serve only certain political groups. The conspiracy theories have become an integral part of politics along with culture (Byford 67).
There is a need to take conspiracy theories seriously in the United States. Moreover, people tend to believe conspiracy theories because of induction of conspiratorial theories in their brains. Also, false flag events created by the powerful authorities are reasons behind people believing in conspiracy theories. However, there is room for suspicion among people regarding conspiracy theories. Conspiracy theories have been in some different guises throughout the history. People fail to understand the mechanism and big game of conspiracy theories which result in believing these theories. Conspiracy theories have influenced brains on a massive scale. The recent conspiracy culture has gained popularity because people are ready to believe the worst about the world they live. Their brains have adjusted to the conspiracy theories and events taking place in surroundings. The conspiracy theories are supported by powerful officials to keep people busy in finding facts and evidence of causes of traumatic events, whereas they achieve their ultimate goals in the form of financial or other gains (Byford 76).
The rhetoric and images of the conspiracy have become part of an everyday pattern of thoughts through high and popular culture. The logic of conspiracy has become an integral part of culture. Moreover, the culture of conspiracy can be considered as a mode of implicit operation in politics of the United States. Conspiracy theories reflect the uncertainty and doubt regarding politics. In essence, conspiracy theories have failed to offer rationale and clarity to people about traumatic events rather mystify and complicate situation more. Timothy Melly has explained the conspiracy theories in an age of postmodernity in a range of postwar. According to Melly, conspiring forces cause a sense of panic among people which result in paranoia. The conspiracy theories fail to offer a paradoxically comforting sense of identity rather it contributes to doubts. The conspiracy theories are controversial social phenomena including religious beliefs and science that need to be elaborated. Moreover, it is believed that conspiracy theories emerge from the conservative view of human nature along with history. The conspiracy theories are a form of distractions for people to deviate them from actual underlying nature of the situation (Knight 86).
In both texts, the general public is the target. People have no idea about the ulterior motive involved in traumatic events or vaccination campaigns that governments vouch for on a large scale. In comparison, conspiracy theories involved in both texts try to delude people from the real facts of events. There is no morality or rationale involved in performing actions as a result of conspiracy theories which is why powerful officials exclude the general public. People are unaware of real motives that are hidden behind labels of healthy children or autonomous terror regions. The powerful officials try to fool the public that the purpose behind events is for prosperous future. In real, it is a just false claim to achieve personal gains involved (Knight 96).
In conclusion, both texts have two different regions, but motives and conspiratorial factors involved are nearly same. The involvement of the official authorities in creating conspiratorial scenarios to confuse public indicates their motives and purposes. The conspiracy theories tend to fulfill diverse functions for different people at different times in unpredictable ways. Moreover, the conspiracy theories have become part of real politics instead of a sideshow. The official parties intend to keep people busy with complicated explanations of traumatic events that are taking place in the whole world.
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- Byford, J. Conspiracy Theories: A Critical Introduction. New York City: Springer, 2011.
- Knight, Peter. Conspiracy Culture: From Kennedy to The X Files. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge, 2013.