Database Management Systems

Subject: Technology
Type: Informative Essay
Pages: 5
Word count: 1371
Topics: Data Analysis, Computer Science, Management


The evolution in the trends in data storage technology as a result of increase in the competition among various organizations has necessitated the integration of database management systems in the organizational information technology infrastructure. This is to meet the current and future demands for data storage in an efficient, secure, and cost effective manner. The earlier versions of the database management systems were quite limited in terms of applicability and adaptability. As a result, software developers came up with a structured database management system that can handle huge data sets securely, accessibly and with integrity. This research paper seeks to discuss the basics of database management and its various components as they apply in a wide range of organizations. 

Roles of a Database management system

The database management system is used in the storage of information where the data is stored in the format of tables and columns. To facilitate the process of data retrieval, the data stored in a database is allocated a unique identification feature such as a name, status, and the type of data attribute. The database management system plays a significant role in concurrency control by providing a logical view of a wide range of process responsible for data manipulation. Moreover, the products of the database management system are made up of particular inputs that need to be refined as they get captured in the organizational database (Clifford et al., 2014). The database management system also ensures that the data stored is secure from unauthorized access. The database security layers are enhanced by the ability of the database management systems to define the user access priorities depending on their individually defined roles in an organization. This security enforcement seeks to ensure that only specific users have the permission to manipulate the data stored in a database.

Types of database management systems

Hierarchical database

A database management system which stored data such that there is a parent-children relationship is called a hierarchical database. In this case, the data exists as a subordinate of each other in the database such that the relationship is typically direct. In this case, the data structure trees are used to define any two consecutive sets of data (Loudon & Loudon, 2017). 

Network Database

A database management system is said to be a network database if the stored data has a many-to-many relationship in the form of a network. In this case, the structure of a database, the inter-relationship between the various data types allows for a graphical data structure whereby it’s possible to use one data record as the key for the whole database.

Relational database

This is a database management system whereby the relationship between the various data types is regarded in the tabular format such that it holds fundamental constructs of a network.  In a relational database, the data records are in the form of rows and columns that give the data a two-dimensional array of structure as its stored in a database.

Object-oriented database

This type of database management system is made up of objects that contain the data elements and the methods. This system is designed to support the implementation of classes and inheritance of specific properties between the subclasses and the superclasses.

Applications in a database management system

MS Access

This is a simple relational database management system that is widely applied in the design of smaller database as well as the process of data entry. Due to the advancement in technology, the MS Access has been designed to enable efficient storage of data, ease of accessibility, and data transfer. This feature of a database management system has special design features that allows for connectivity with a wide range of data sources such as the excel sheets and databases (Kim & Choi, 2017).


This Special feature of a database management system is used in the integration of various web applications with the database for retrieval and storage of data especially in relation to PHP. Mt SQL makes it possible to write and delete data from web applications since it acts as their link to the database.

SQL server

This is a typical relational database management system that is mainly applied in small businesses for the purpose of data warehousing and the general database management practices. The SQL server plays a similar role with the MS Access although they have fairly distinct features.

The major difference between the SQL server and the MS Access is that MS Access is file based with the ability to hold a maximum file of 2GB in a free distributable runtime (Connoly & Begg, 2005). On the other hand, the SQL Server is a client-based model that holds data of up to 4GB.

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Components of a database management system

Data Definition Language

This refers to the language used by the database designers to specify the form in which the contents of a database are stored. This involves clearly defining all the data elements in their original format before they are transformed into the formats which the application programs can understand. Below are the common Data Definition Language operations

(CREATE TABLE…) This is an operation used to define the attributes ad create the tables in a database.

(ALTER TABLE…) This operation makes it possible to add or remove the table attributes in a database

(!) (DROP TABLE) This operation seeks to delete all the contents of a table that contains data in a database

Data Manipulation Language

This refers to the database design language that is used to describe the operations carried out on data to facilitate storage, changing, and searching of the data. The following data manipulation operations are carried out in a Structured Query Language (Gouhar, 2017).

(INSERT) This operation adds data to a table

(UPDATE) This operation manipulates that data stored in a database

(DELETE) This operation removes data from a table

(SELECT) This manipulation operation queries for specific data in the database

Data Dictionary

This component of a database management system is usually an automated file used for keeping a record of all data characteristics and operations to ensure data security. The data dictionaries are used in the processing of reports, program locations, and production of lists.

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Advantages of Database Management System

The database management system facilitates easier sharing of data by creating an environment that allows the end users to access the data for a faster response to the changes in the environment.

The database management system ensures high levels of data security since it provides a framework that allows enforcement of information security and privacy.

Database management system ensures efficiency in decision-making since the date is well managed to allow for easier accessibility and improved generation of high-quality information which is important for decision-making.

Disadvantages of Database Management Systems

The integration of database management systems in the organizations IT infrastructure results in increased costs since it requires expensive software and hardware components as well as the services of skilled experts. Moreover, the costs of maintaining the database management system infrastructure are high.

Database management systems increase the complexity in organizational management since it integrates with a wide range of information technology devices and interfaces that cause a change in the normal operations of the organization. This calls for increased monitoring on the database infrastructure to ensure information security.


The database management system is an important component of the IT infrastructure in all organizations. This is because; the large data requires sophisticated storage mechanisms that would ensure easy access to the data as well as maximum security on the data stored. In this research paper, the various roles of a database in relation to data storage and information security management has been discussed. The various types of database management systems, their functions, and the components that make up the database management systems have also been discussed in detail. Moreover, the various applications that facilitate data storage in various formats have also been subjected to a discussion. This research paper has outlined the key advantages and disadvantages of the database management system thus providing invaluable information for any business considering this system for their databases.

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  1. Connolly, T. M., & Begg, C. E. (2005). Database systems: a practical approach to design, implementation, and management. Pearson Education.
  2. Clifford, P., & Robinson, M. (2014). U.S. Patent Application No. 14/786,728.
  3. Gouhar, A. (2017). Database Management System. International Journal of Engineering Science, 11766.
  4. Kim, N. H., An, D., & Choi, J. H. (2017). Introduction. In Prognostics and Health Management of Engineering Systems(pp. 1-24). Springer, Cham.
  5. Laudon, K. C., & Laudon, J. P. (2016). Management information system. Pearson Education India.
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