Ideally, human life is prone to emotions. Sadness, grief, sorrow, joy happiness, love, and hate are some of the feelings that individuals can feel at any time, age and place. Studies by Kolovos et al (1650) show lack of clear outline and the consistency with which all the emotions should occur or blend. However, when an individual experiences sadness, grief and sorrow for quite some time, it now becomes a matter of great concern. When these feelings overwhelm an individual so that they find no pleasure in even the usual things that bring happiness, then it`s no longer normal. In such instances, it is realized that one suffers from depression. Therefore, the essay examines the meaning, effects, cause, diagnosis, the difference in reactions and possible treatments for depression.
Depression is a feeling of low spirits or loss of hope and general dejection. In many cases, it is characterized by the behavioral patterns goes beyond the norms. Depression exists in many forms, classified by the time factor. Studies by Muñoz-Laboy et Al. (1187) indicate them as a persistent depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression. Besides, postpartum depression exists in some women who have just delivered.
Firstly, when one experiences continuous depressive episodes over an extended period, generally over two years, physicians conclude that such a person suffers from the persistent depressive disorder. Secondly, bipolar disorder or manic-depressive illness is a rare type of depression. Such depression is characterized by a shift in the mood, energy, and thinking. Thirdly, psychotic depression is the severe mental disorder in which one`s thoughts and emotion are so impaired to the extent that they can barely recognize necessary things. It mainly occurs when major or bipolar depressions are accompanied by hallucinations delusions or paranoia. Additionally, it relates to recurrent depressive disorder (Muñoz-Laboy et Al. 1186).
Research claims that depression is the leading cause of disability and one of the major contributors towards overall global burden of diseases due to its intensity (Perrotti 1435). According to the National Institute of Mental Health, nearly a staggering three hundred and fifty million people have depressions worldwide. In fact, such figure constitutes five percent of the total world`s population. Moreover, it is claimed that depression is also among the initial causes of suicides, which is the second leading cause of deaths among people aged between fifteen and thirty-five. Muñoz-Laboy et Al. (1190). shows that more women are affected by depressions than men are.
Based on the causes of depression, physicians allude that most of the origin of depressions are typically associated with the victim`s history which always lingers in their minds to suppress almost everything else. Moreover, there are claims that human body functions quite generally until something compels it otherwise. Here, one experiences the usual feelings of sadness and joy as well as some form of mood swings if any, resulting in depression (Bernstein, So-young Park and Kathleen 800).
One of the leading causes of depression is abuse, especially sexual abuse. When one is sexually abused, so many thoughts go through their head. Such ideas range from the fact that they have been offended and are either craving for revenge or are in dire need of justice. Worries about the outcome such as getting pregnant or contacting of some of the chronic sexually transmitted diseases make such persons depressed. Studies show that after such incidences, the abused persons may decide to remain solitude or coldly relate with their peers. All these feelings, thoughts and emotions can be very overwhelming, and one may end up isolating themselves from people and the regular activities due to the stress (Bernstein, So-young Park and Kathleen 796).
Conflicts and death is also a significant contributing factor. When one`s relative dies or is engaged in a battle, there is an excellent probability of so many outcomes. In particular, the thought of losing a loved one appears freaking. It makes the victim have many worries. Most of the victims feel like it is the end of the world to them (Bernstein, So-young Park and Kathleen 799). Therefore, they begin to lose interest in everything and view the world as a boring place to be.
Other health-related issues can be a cause of depression. Certain medications, serious illness, and substance abuse can also be a contributing factor towards a depressive state (Perrotti, 1439). Depression is mainly, in most cases, a breach of the cognitive function of a person. Therefore, when one takes a medication that hinders cognitive functionality, they are likely to be depressed. Diseases that touch on the brain are likely to lead to depressions. Certain hard drugs such as cocaine and heroin that interfere with the brain can lead towards depression. The hallucinations and impaired judgments that come about with the continuous use of such drugs end up breaching the cognitive systems, causing depressions (Bernstein, So-young Park and Kathleen 797).
Depression is characterized specific symptoms. Notably, characteristics of depressions are not a qualifier that one necessarily is depressed. In some cases, one may exhibit one or two of the attributes at a given point, but they all stop and may not necessarily be sad as such. Therefore, there is a given outline on how to link the characteristics to the possibility of having depression (Bernstein, So-young Park and Kathleen 794).
The characteristics of depressions can be classified into four major categories that include the whole body, cognitive, behavioral and mood. The cognitive symptoms revolve around how the depression affects the overall functionality of the victim`s brain, the reasoning, perception, and concentration among others. The whole body category entails the overall reaction of the body towards the depression. The behavioral characteristic is about how the things the victim does have changed. Finally, the mood category relates to how the victim feels about everything around them (Kolovos et al. 1654).
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Depression mainly affects the cognitive function of the victim, as stated earlier on. The brain functionality of the victim changes and affects the whole body system. The victim may gradually begin to lose concentration. They may exhibit the general inability to have their entire mind on one thing for some while. In the end, such conditions may lead to impaired judgment since the victim will not be able to internalize anything and process it well (Kolovos et al. 1653).
When the cognitive system has been corrupted, the ability to tell right from wrong is breached, giving room to random thoughts that come by and takes the better part of the victim. At such points, the view of suicide as the sole way to relieve one`s self of the misery comes in. (Kolovos et al. 1654). Since they are unable to find any pleasure in anything, the victims may be convinced that ending their life is their only solace and therefore resort to it.
The victim may also have a low self-esteem, leading to their isolation from their peers and avoiding groups (Rappaport , Moskowitz and Bianca 269). The victims tend to be worried not knowing the cause of their worries. Besides, the victims may end up blaming themselves for what they had not done. As observed in many cases, they act and do things beyond their control. In other words, they act unknowingly (Köhler, et al. 649).
Once the brain has been affected, and all the functionality in it is no longer reasonable, the whole body begins to feel the consequences. This is the point where one starts to feel like they cannot do anything. The condition leads the victims to general laziness, body weakness. At such point, one prefers to remain the whole day indoors because their sleep patterns are affected in some ways. The victims spend much time thinking about what they should do to the extent that they lack sleep. When such conditions persist, it may get to a level they develop insomnia. On the other hand, they could resort to rest, as the only way through which they could escape the reality of everything around them for a while. It goes to the extent that the victims spend their whole days in bed (Rappaport , Moskowitz and Bianca 269)
Once the whole body has been affected, the behaviors of the victims change a great deal (Bernstein, 1700). Some may end up being so irritable and will feel angry and annoyed by almost everything that happens around them. Some may also get so emotional, breaking down on the smallest provocation and get more and weaker. Besides, other victims lack appetite and end up not eating any food at all. On the other hand, abnormal appetites may end up developing in the victims.
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The moods or the feelings of the victims are also a clear indication of the depression they may be going through in life. Most of them will be observed to always be in a somber and overwhelming mood, looking so sad and dejected. They will be unhappy, exhibiting an inability to be pleased by anything. Moreover, most of them will find no joy even on funny things around them (Rappaport , Moskowitz and Bianca 269).
Diagnosis of depression almost depends entirely on its characteristics or the symptoms in general. Since there is not yet a standard way of determining the extent to which the symptoms should go to learn whether one is depressed, physicians work on approximation. When one exhibits more than five of the symptoms of depression for over a period of two weeks, it is advisable to go for a depression test. The diagnosis should take into account the four main behavioral changes in depression that include general body functioning, abnormal sleeping habits, eating disorders and lack of energy or problems with self-image (Köhler, Stephan, et al. 646). Depression changes the victim`s overall being and self. All the usual things that they used to do will turn into monotonous abnormal and rather dull stuff. All their reasoning ability and cognitive prowess will have gone. All the good memory and the jovial self they possessed will also have gone leaving them more of an object and less of a human being.
Kolovos et al. (1654) show that effects of depression on the victims are more or less related to their characteristics. The depression causes considerable damage to their brain functionality and reason. Depression will also interfere with the typical emotional reactions and changes in an individual depending on the occasion. The general behavior of the victim also changes In fact, they end up being either too obsessed with one thing or are reluctant to anything.
In most cases, depression, when not attended to, may end up having the victim succumb to death even without commenting suicide. As stated observed, one of the characteristics of depression concerning the cognitive function is the thought of evil all the time. When the victim begins to think of the negative things alone in life, they start thinking of ending their lives, and this affects their perception about life (Rappaport , Moskowitz and Bianca 269).
Depression also affects the overall reasoning of the victim. They are likely to have impaired judgments due to inability to concentrate, and this changes everything they do. People who are depressed have always to be exempted from any form of work, especially one that involves brainwork due to the state of their brain. In case the victim is a student, there are high chances of him/her failing terribly since their mind cannot function well. In some cases, depression may even escalate to madness. In other words, it may make victims lose their sanity.
Depression is also known to affect the behavior of the victim. The victim always ends up being in isolation. Owing to the low esteem associated with depression, the victims will prefer to be alone. They also end up being inactive because they either do not eat and are weak or because they become lazy and cut off. Besides, the victims tend to sleep a lot. In some cases as well, they may end up not having enough sleep and maybe even escalate to insomnia (Alenzi and Usha 1719). However, in some cases as well, victims of depression become too aggressive in their deeds and actions. The victim may end up being too aggressive or too violent and irritable. Such effects may be characterized by the victim`s longing always to do things they think will help them forget everything and keep them busy. (Rappaport , Moskowitz and Bianca 269).
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Depression also affects the mood and the overall emotions of the victim. Most of the victims will be seen to be so sad and gloomy all the time as they find no pleasure at all in anything and will be seen to have lost interest in life as a whole. Some may seem to hate anyone around them and would not be able to find joy at all even when funny things occur that everyone enjoys (Rappaport , Moskowitz and Bianca 269).
Observably, it may also get to a point where one always feels guilty of things they actually in the real sense have no control over. As one gets depressed, anxiety comes in, and the victim is still anxious about everything. The victim will also experience somewhat abnormal mood swings almost all the time. The victim will exhibit general apathy, discontent in nearly everything and general hopelessness in life (Köhler, Stephan, et al. 645).
However, depression may have different effects on the victims depending on some factors, one of which is the personality of the victim. Besides, it differs from one individual to the next depending on the way the individual views life in general and taking into consideration the experiences have undergone. Therefore, the differences make the experience of depression more or less one thing that is unique to the depressed personalities (Perrotti et al. 1439).
Some people may be very resilient and robust. Such persons can withstand the effects of depression. Such factors may be linked to their background. For instance, one who has gone through a lot of hardships in life will be able to withstand a little bit the difficulties and the effect of depression. These people will not talk much and will always be by themselves, though at the same time struggle to show a smiling face regardless of the condition ( Köhler, Stephan, et al. 642).
On the other hand, there are those who may have had an excellent upbringing without any challenges. Such persons are severely hit by the effects of depression. When faced with any problem, such people may think that it is over for them and that there is no more hope in life. Most of them are the ones who end up being sad all the time (Perrotti et al. 1437).They become very emotionally unstable and cry all the time even at the simplest things. When things get worse, and they are not adequately checked, they may decide to take away their lives, as a resort to ease their pain.
The angles at which the individuals view life or their general take on life also determine how the effects of depression may differ from one person to the next. Those who see life as full of challenges that in the end can always be overcome have a little bit of resilience and can withstand the effects of depression. On the other hand, those who feel that life is unfair are most likely to succumb to despair (Perrotti et al. 1434).
Depression is treatable. However, it is to be noted with a lot of concern that since the effects of depressions differ from a person to the next, the medications or procedures to be applied on the various victims also vary (Alenzi and Usha 1720). Therefore, it means there is no conventional way and it all depends on the doctor observing the individual `s symptoms and deciding on the best way to go about it.
Depression can be treated in two main ways. There are the psychological treatment and the medication way. The psychological one is more or less centered on the interrelationship between the victim and the people. The victim gets to meet psychologists, and this involves the face-to-face interaction with the psychologist who attends to the victim (Perrotti et al. 1439). The treatment is done under the supervision of the lay therapists and other professionals based on the characteristics.
The medication way involves the giving of the antidepressants to the victims to ease their symptoms. However, it should be noted with a lot of concern that before applying the medications, the adverse effects should be examined to avoid the possibility of adding a problem on top of another (Perrotti et al. 1436). It should also be noted that the antidepressants take a long time before their effectiveness realized. Therefore, the long-term approach is always considered the best.
In sum, depression is one of the problems that affect people, forcing them to suffer miserably. As observed, depression is characterized by various symptoms. Moreover, the condition differs on individuals. It can be diagnosed to help patients receive treatment. Early detection and diagnosis is the best. Studies show that the state can is treatable. Two methods of its treatments involve the psychological and medication.
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