Domestic abuse informative essay

Subject: Family
Pages: 9
Word count: 2508
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Introduction

The focus of this research will be on domestic abuse, and it aims at analyzing whether this aspect warrants any qualitative research. Moreover, it will also analyze whether it warrants a mixed method research. Furthermore, this paper provides an explanation on how data will be collected, and it identifies the literature review sections. This paper examines the methods that have been used for purposes of collecting data. Furthermore, the focus of this paper will be on the identification of the causal factors responsible for domestic violence. The major argument of this paper is that, domestic violence is a phenomenon that is complex to understand, and there is a need of incorporating a number of relevant studies that can help to understand its causes and thereafter come up with proper control procedures and policies.

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Literature Review

Ali et al (2016) asserts that domestic violence is a phenomenon that is common all over the world. It is a concept that involves a violent behavior that is targeted to one or more members of a family. Note that, domestic violence normally happens in a family background, and can occur in marriages. Moreover, Ali et al (2016) goes on to denote that this kind of violence can also occur amongst couples who are cohabiting with one another. It is possible to assert that domestic violence can also be targeted at parents of a person. Furthermore, Babcock et al (2016) asserts that if violence is directed at a parent, it can be classified as domestic violence, because it has happened within the family set up. Children are also included, thus, it is unwise for a person to assault their children, on the notion that they are disciplining them. Note that domestic violence can occur in a number of forms. It can either be physical violence, and this normally occurs when physical harm has been meted on an individual (Babcock et al, 2016). On most occasions, physical violence can attract charges of battery or assault. Moreover, this type of violence can also be classified as verbal or emotional. Under verbal abuse, one of the parties will provide a negative statement that aims at demeaning the victim. Emotional abuse normally leads to very serious consequences, which may include psychological torture or problems.

In the view of Belknap (2014), other forms of domestic abuse may include sexual abuse, religious and domestic torture. Sexual abuse is common in marriages or amongst couples who are cohabiting. It may involve rape or the withdrawal of sexual relationships amongst the couples. Furthermore, Bennett and Paul (2013) denote that the largest victims of domestic violence are always women. In some countries of the world, domestic violence is seen as a form of punishment on women who are believed to be living an immoral life. Good examples are countries such as Saudi Arabia and Iran which believe in the strict interpretation of the Quran. It therefore means that a woman, who is caught committing adultery, can be stoned to death. Nonetheless, according to the United Nations, 35% of women all over the world have experienced some form of violence. This can either be physical violence, or sexual violence. However, the violence that these women have experienced emanated from people who were not their partners. The United Nations figures on women who are experiencing domestic violence is startling. This is because it is a large number. Over 70% of women all over the world have experienced some form of domestic violence.

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Note that, women who have experienced domestic violence from their partners are always vulnerable to abortions, and chances of experiencing depression are very high. Furthermore, women who have experienced domestic violence are always at a risk of contracting HIV, when compared to women who have never experienced domestic violence (Connell, 2014). Furthermore, from the 2012 figures, it is estimated that half of homicide cases reported in the year, half of them were or incidences where women were killed by their intimate partners. This is in comparison to the 65 of the cases involving men. This is an indication that women have borne the brunt of domestic violence in the world (Devries et al., 2013). Moreover, child marriages also make these girls to be vulnerable to domestic abuse. In fact, the United Nations denotes that about 750 million women have been married before they reached the age of 18 years. This has the impact of socially isolating these girls, early pregnancies and limits their opportunities. In fact, statistics indicate that more than 50% of cases involving domestic abuse are not reported.

Theoretical Frameworks of Domestic Violence

There are a number of theoretical frameworks that have been developed for purposes of explaining this concept of domestic violence. Theories are important because they provide a vivid explanation of the concept, analyzing the social factors responsible for causing the violence, and provide a possible solution. Some of the theories that will be looked upon are the social learning theory, the theory of cycle of violence, resource theory and existence factor theory. These theoretical frameworks can help to provide an understanding on the causes of domestic violence and how to mitigate them.

Social Learning Theory

Majority of people normally learn behaviors through observation and imitation. When it comes to domestic violence and abuse, a person can acquire such a behavior, if he is coming from a home or family that experiences the abuse. For instance, if the father of a child abuses his wife, his son may acquire such a behavior, and this is because he may act as a role model to his child. The child imitates and acquires the violent behavior through the process referred to as the operational conditioning. Note that, an aggressive behavior is learnt by a child during the stages of development and as the situation continues, children view such an aggressive behavior as normal (Dale and Rebecca, 2013). It is on this basis that Bandura denotes that aggressive behaviors are observed and imitated, and over a certain period of time, they become normal. While analyzing the effects of domestic violence on children, statistics carried out by researchers and independent institutions such as UNICEF provide a grim picture. Statistics indicate that more than 5 million children have experienced domestic violence in the United States. Furthermore, from these statistics, we are able to learn that children, who are coming from homes with domestic violence, are 74% likely to develop violent behaviors (Roberto et al., 2014). On this basis, it is possible to assert that it is through an imitation and observance of these violent behaviors that children begin to normalize them, once they become adults. This is an aspect of the social learning theory.

Theory of Cycle of Violence

This is a theoretical framework that identifies four main stages that lead to domestic violence. The first stage is tension building. This is a stage in which some aggressive behaviors are depicted in a relationship. In the view of Lenore Walker, some minor violence can occur in this stage. However, there is always a sense of denial, and the victims to the violent process may engage in other activities aimed at seeking to please the aggressor. The second stage during this process is the incident stage. This is a stage where domestic violence begins to manifest. Violence may occur either physically or emotionally (Roberto et al., 2014). In the view of Lenore Walker, this stage is the shortest, and the violence that occurs is uncontrollable. Other forms of abuse are sexual, psychological and verbal. The third stage is the making up stage. This involves a situation whereby the partners of domestic violence are trying to reconcile their differences. This is a stage of relief, and the parties to the conflict engage in acts of kindness and generosity towards one another. The final stage is the calm stage, and it involves a situation whereby everything normalizes within the family set up. Based on these facts, the cycle of violence theory asserts that domestic violence does not occur spontaneously, but it is as a result of a process.

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The Feminist Theory

This notion of feminism began to gain prominence in the 1960s. This is because the period witnessed an increase in cases involving domestic violence. The theory of feminism was enacted for purpose of challenging the notion that domestic violence is a rare occurrence, and it is carried out by men who are suffering from a psychological problem (Roberto et al., 2014). Nonetheless, according to the theoretical framework, domestic violence occurs because of gender issues. Men view themselves as masculine, and they want to subjugate women to be under their influences. On this basis, feminists argue that violent behavior of men, towards women, occurs because of the manner which men are socialized (Lawson, 2012).

For instance, according to feminism, men are supposed to be the head of the family. However, this is not always the case, because of rising incidents where women have emerged to be breadwinners and lead their families. However, feminists argue that because of such conceptions about the position of men in the society, men tend to act violently towards women, thus, legitimizing violence. Furthermore, feminists argue that men have the capability of accessing resources differently. A good example is that some communities in Asia and Africa prefer to educate their male children, as opposed to their female counterparts. This gives them access to some of the resources they do not have.

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Resource Theory

Under this theoretical framework, domestic violence occurs because of the levels in which a person is able to control resources. Rich men have the capability of controlling a large amount of resources, and this makes them likely to commit domestic violence (Roberto et al., 2014). This is when compared to poor men, who do not have control over a large amount of resources.

Exosystem Factor Theory  

This is a theoretical framework that focuses on life stressors when analyzing the causes of domestic violence in families. For instance, when a person loses a job, he is more likely to resort to domestic violence, because of the stress associated with such a loss. Other examples include a history of being raised up in a family that was violent, business losses, etc.

Methods

The aim of this research will be to find out the factors that cause domestic violence in a selected group of people.  Moreover, the researcher will also be involved in finding the perceptions and attitudes that the selected group has towards domestic violence. Qualitative method of gathering data will be in use for this study. On this note, the researcher will rely on the use of surveys and interviews to collect the necessary information that will be used to provide an answer to the research questions. The structure and the design of the survey will be open ended. This is because it will be easier to gather as much information about domestic abuse and violence as possible. Furthermore, to receive relevant and accurate information, the study will rely on domestic violence, from people in homeless shelters.

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However, they should be the victims of domestic violence. Note that, some of the other reasons for choosing the surveys is because of its flexibility. It has the capability of allowing the researcher to collect data through various processes, such as the telephone or even emailing. One of the cities that this study will focus on is the city of Yorkville. Another important city that cannot be ignored is the city of Morton. The reasons for choosing these cities are because of the high rates of domestic violence that is found in them.

The sampling method will be non-random. This is because the researcher will go to home shelters for purposes of collecting information for its research. These home shelters must be chosen wisely. Nonetheless, not everybody will have to take part in the research. Only participants who give their consent and agree to participate in our research will be used. Moreover, information will be given to the participants on why we are carrying out the research, and how it is going to be used. Furthermore, there will be the use of SPSS to analyze the data collected.

Presentation

While presenting information collected from this research, a table will be used. The table will have information on the most affected sex, in terms of gender violence, the numbers of the violent acts and the percentage value. While examining the most affected sex, the table will indicate the number of men and women who were willing to talk about their experiences regarding domestic violence. Furthermore, there will be the use of a bar graph, to indicate the age ranges of the participants. People between the ages of 21 to 40 years participated in this research. The age ranges will be segmented by the use of an interval of 5. For instance, 21 to 25 years will be the first age bracket, 26 to 35 the second, etc. Additionally, the presentation will also identify the literacy level of the participants. This will help to show whether they understood the questions or not. Other issues that will be presented in this presentation are the profiles of the victims and the rates of responding or reporting the cases to authority.  Furthermore, while providing a presentation, the causes of domestic violence will be highlighted.

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Conclusion

Domestic violence is a phenomenon that is difficult to understand. This research will seek to understand its causes, by talking to people or collecting information from people who have experienced the violence. However, not all people are always willing to talk about domestic violence, because of the stigma they may face, by opening up. From studies, research indicates that women are the most vulnerable population or group that experiences domestic violence. This research will aim at finding out whether such claims are true.

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  1. Ali, Parveen Azam, Katie Dhingra, and Julie McGarry. “A literature review of intimate partner violence and its classifications.” Aggression and violent behavior (2016).
  2. Babcock, Julia, et al. “Domestic violence perpetrator programs: A proposal for evidence-based standards in the United States.” Partner Abuse 7.4 (2016): 355-460.
  3. Belknap, Joanne. The invisible woman: Gender, crime, and justice. Nelson Education, 2014.
  4. Bennett, Gerry, and Paul W. Kingston. Elder abuse: Concepts, theories and interventions. Springer, 2013.
  5. Connell, Raewyn W. Gender and power: Society, the person and sexual politics. John Wiley & Sons, 2014.
  6. Dale, Orren, and Rebecca Smith. Human behavior and the social environment: Social systems theory. Pearson Higher Ed, 2013.
  7. Devries, Karen M., et al. “The global prevalence of intimate partner violence against women.” Science 340.6140 (2013): 1527-1528.
  8. Lawson, Jennifer. “Sociological theories of intimate partner violence.” Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 22.5 (2012): 572-590.
  9. Roberto, Karen A., Marya C. McPherson, and Nancy Brossoie. “Intimate partner violence in late life A review of the empirical literature.” Violence against women (2014): 1077801213517564.
  10. Stockman, Jamila K., Marguerite B. Lucea, and Jacquelyn C. Campbell. “Forced sexual initiation, sexual intimate partner violence and HIV risk in women: a global review of the literature.” AIDS and Behavior 17.3 (2013): 832-847.
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