Gemeinschaft/Gesellschaft Continuum


The Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft continuum represent the evolution of social organization from the social and natural associations such as kingship to rationalized social world that people engage in democratical exchange of ideas where leaders are elected. The ideas in the continuum promoted modernization and urbanization of various societal factors hence distinguishing the lives of those who lived in urban areas and rural areas (Leithwood, 2002). The continuum explains the existence of relationships in the society. Gemeinschaft concept emphasizes on cohesion and common identity of all people in society resulting in solidarity while engaging in societal activities. Gesellschaft concept, on the other hand, is characterized by individualism and temporary mutual relations that would result in benefits (Mondal, N.d). Schools represent a community that has people with varied backgrounds, therefore, have both Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft concepts. The balance in the continuum is important in establishing systems that run a school. 

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The evolution of rural family units to urban life families largely influences the behavior of students in school. The formal relations between students and teachers, and rules in the school are characteristics of Gesellschaft continuum. The above relationship mutually benefits the participants in that the students gain intellectual knowledge while teachers earn monthly salary for their work. Teachers have specific tasks that they perform in formal and contractual settings in achieving the set goals and objectives of the school. Moreover, the formality of process enables teachers to have tolerance to deviant students and emphasize on achieving good grades. Gesellschaft concept further influences the spirit of self-control while dealing with students and transiently develops students that could impact positive change in the society (Mondal, N.d). Leadership and administrative systems of the school provide a platform for electing and appointing qualified individuals to run the organization. There are bureaucratic processes that determine how employees get certain positions in the school and ensure collectivity in achieving the results of the school. For instance, student leadership is appointed through the electoral process while the school management gets the positions on merit. 

Maintenance of order and peace in the school is achieved through both Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft continuum. Both concepts require students to uphold the values, beliefs and integrity of the school. The legal system in the school is a measure of morality among students and employees. The managerial department of the school establishes policies and structures that maintain discipline among the students (Ballantine and Spade, 2012). Students and teachers who misbehave directly face the consequences as outlined by the legal system. Maintenance of social order in school is imperative in dealing with effects of urbanization and modernism among students. The organizational structure in the school community blends the perspectives of individualism and communal relations to enhance Relationships among students are guided by both Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft concepts. Many students from different cities develop personal relationships as they get best friends and even spouses amongst themselves. However, effects of technology and individualism prevent others from establishing good personal friendship. Notably, very few students live in rural areas, therefore, adapting in the new modern school life may be difficult. The differences between rural and modern students would be evident through their mode of dressing, talking and these may form the basis of discrimination. It is therefore fundamental for students and school administration to influence the sociology aspects of learners and make the process of learning effectively to all students. 

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  1. Ballantine, J. H., & Spade, J. Z. (2012). Schools and society: A sociological approach to education. Los Angeles: Sage/Pine Forge Press
  2. Mondal P. N.d. Comparison of Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft. Web. 
  3. Leithwood, K. A. (2002). Second international handbook of educational leadership and administration: Part one. Dordrecht: Springe
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