Table of Contents
Organizational culture varies from one company to the other and they are highly influenced by work groups and teams and power and politics. The type of organizational culture that characterizes a company speaks to the extent to which the firm structures its work groups and teams as well as power and politics. Company XYZ is an airline with a scores of employees put into different work groups and teams for the benefit of controlling affairs in all the departments under the company. Power and politics within the organization helps to shape the vision, mission and the goals for which the various groups and teams work in accordance with. The type of organizational culture strictly relates with market oriented culture whereby the value and belief systems echo the achievement of results and the targets set. In order to positively influence such an organizational culture the company employs the substance of collectivism which border on cooperation, support and coherence as key components of the organizational culture. The power and politics also has some effects on the organizational culture of the company. This stems from the fact that the organizational structure is empowered by a high Power Distance Index (PDI) which determines the hierarchical structure. The High PDI affects organizational culture and the effectiveness of the company. This proves the point that work groups and teams and power and politics have influence on the culture and effectiveness of an organization.
The culture of every organization is largely defined by the structure or building blocks of work groups and teams in addition to power and politics that characterize the organization (Leong & Rasli, 2014). A well-structured work groups and teams, thus making the most out of individual abilities and assigning them to work under specific teams enhances organizational culture and the overall effectiveness of the organization. Likewise power and politics also play a significant role in defining the organizational culture and effectiveness. This paper seeks to explore a discourse as to the extent to which work groups and teams and power and politics affects organization’s culture and its overall effectiveness. But in order to establish a meaningful discussion into the subject matter, company XYZ will be employed as a case study and emphasis will be placed on how work groups and teams as well as power and politics influence the organizational culture and effectiveness of the company.
Company XYZ is an airline firm that has operated for at least two decades. The company has different work groups and team of employees working under the different departments of the organization. I for instance work under the project team assigned for the construction of a new airstrip. This project is expected enhance on the day-today activities of the company. The team is made up of highly qualified personnel with the requisite technical knowhow and competencies. Power and politics are of immense significance to the success of the team (Yadav, 2014). This is to say that the element of power and politics facilitates the setting up vision, mission and goals of the team which aligns with the supreme objectives of the company. Power and politics and teams generally do help in making sure that workers get satisfied or otherwise which defines the measure of the effectiveness of the company.
Types of Organizational Culture
According to Kyndt et al. (2016) organizational culture constitutes a system of shared values and beliefs as well as assumptions which underlines the behavior of employees within an organization. The organizational culture varies from one company to the other depending on the substance of values and belief systems that guides the behaviour of people in the organization. Xenikou (2014) further likened organizational culture to the element of the convictions and principles within a firm that influences the entirety of the way and manner in which the employees perform their various roles. Therefore organizational culture can be said to mean the unique behavioural standards for which employees of the company are obliged to exhibit.
Basu (2016) identified four main types of organizational culture including Clan, Adhocracy, Market and Hierarchy oriented types of organizational culture. The clan oriented organizational culture concentrates on nurturing, mentoring and completing tasks under a friendly atmosphere together. Adhocracy organizational culture reflects the values of innovation and risk taking which leads the bringing of new relevant ideas into existence. However the market oriented organizational culture prides with competition and achievement and making sure that the company achieves results. But the hierarchy organizational culture focuses on attaining efficiency and stability for the company and making sure things are always done right.
The type of organizational culture for company XYZ imitates that of the market oriented organizational culture. This is because the belief and value system of the company centre on achieving results and making sure the set targets are met at every point in time (Kaiser, LeBreton & Hogan, 2015). The company also does not relent in its efforts to formulate and implement innovative strategies that are consistent with projecting it to beat off competition from other companies operating in the market. The culture of the company further demands that, it overcomes every challenge it may face in the course of embarking on the daily operations in order to meet the goals and set targets. This implies that company XYZ particularly focuses on getting a work done notwithstanding the challenges and problems it may encounter. It must be stated however that all the employees of the company XYZ are not only hardworking but they possess a can-do spirit which inspires them to achieve the desired results on the back of every project they embark upon. In the light of this the culture of the company is said to replicate the market oriented organizational culture.
Effects of work groups and teams on organizational culture
Gulrajani (2015) stated that work groups and teams in a company refer to employees that are assigned together under different portfolios and work together to achieve a common objective and subsequently share responsibilities for the success or effort of the group. These teams have different responsibilities assigned and they work closely together to achieve them. But under Company XYZ, there are scores of teams at the work place mandated to oversee and accomplish different tasks for which the company is responsible. I actually belong to the project management team.
Individualism versus Collectivism
According to the Hofstede cultural dimension of individualism versus collectivism and juxtaposing the strength of the ties among employees within the organization, Company XYZ is used to the substance of collectivism. This is because there is a great deal of loyalty among employees to the various teams in which they may find themselves. This actually helps individuals within each team to be empowered and overcome their personal challenges which performing roles in the organization. Members in the team try to take each other’s back and this institutes a strong bonding of relationship in the team. On this score the company adheres to the system of collectivism.
Skills building within the project team as influenced by collectivism
In the midst of the spirit of collectivism that characterizes the level of relationship and ties in the company, building of skills is highly influenced by collective efforts which propel the group and individuals to develop their skills or potentials to the fullest (Katou, 2015). This stems from the fact that every member of the team tries to help and guide other members to sharpen their skills in addition to relevant skills and abilities that may be needed for organizational growth and stability. The building of skills as influenced by the constituent of collectivism helps to introduce an organizational culture where employees relate soundly with each other in terms of learning and building on special skill for the company. I recall an incident on a specific day where I had challenges with executing an assignment. Then all the team members willingly offered to help by providing me with relevant ideas that helped. In the end I took vital lessons from the tips that I received and this helped me to develop the skills and competence to accomplish the task. Therefore collective efforts influence the building of skills in the company.
Motivation within the project team as influenced by collectivism
Motivation and rewards for the group is also highly influenced by the substance of collectivism. This is because the members in the group try to encourage one another to work harder to achieve organizational growth or meet the set targets for the group (Carlos, Rodrigues & Dibb, 2014). There is a great deal of inspiration from members especially as everybody gets motivated by the reassurances and reinforcement from all the members within the group. Under such situations, the overall organizational culture of the company is defined a system of values and belief which ties with encouraging one another to accomplish tasks. Furthermore the leaders of the group try harder to offer rewards for high performing individuals within the group. I again recall an incident where the group leader acknowledged my efficiency within a particular month and called on all the other members to emulate my efforts. This is a constant practice in the group and helps to fully motivate all members to work tirelessly such that their efforts may be recognized. Furthermore the team has some good packages for high performing individuals and this brings motivation for members to work extra harder.
Harmony within the project team as influenced by collectivism
There is no denying the fact of an element of harmony and coordination within the project team and this is powered by the measure of the strong level of ties among individual members. This is established on the basis that members of the project team try to do away with their egos and reason together with all members (Williams, Perillo & Brown, 2015). No particular individual see themselves better of the others and there is a sense of mutual respect and understanding or appreciation of individual differences which substantiates harmony in the team. Every member does feel the need to bring their ideas on the table to help the course of the team. Therefore the organization’s culture is influenced by a magnitude of total coordination and coherence. The level of coordination facilitates the significant successes achieved by the project team in most cases. Every day at work within the project team is a delight as members see their colleagues as partners working together for a common goal rather than competitors seeking for individual glories. It therefore promotes active involvement among members in the team in respect of the various projects it embarks upon.
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Effects of power and politics on organizational culture
Cadden, Marshall and Cao (2013) defined power and politics as the ability to influence or possess out-and-out control of the behavior of employees within an organization. Power and politics therefore entails the structure of the influence and authority within an organization. The organizational structure of company XYZ refers to a functional organizational structure. I am a member of the project department and a subordinate working under the instructions and directives of a team of leaders. Roles are defined and assigned by the leaders as regards how the day-today activities ought to be carried out in the department.
Power Distance Index (PDI)
In particular reference to the Hofstede cultural dimension the Power Distance Index (PDI) explains the degree of inequality that exists in relation to power within an organization which is accepted by all employees. It must be stated however that the measure of PDI of company XYZ is high. This means that the hierarchical distribution of power is not even (Cadden, Marshall & Cao, 2013) as some members are accorded with more power and recognition than others. Therefore every employee stays within their limit and act in accordance with the hierarchical distribution of power as far as the company is concerned.
Composition of the organization
The composition of the company is largely determined by a high DPI as already stated (Williams, Perillo & Brown, 2015). Therefore employees fully understand and appreciate the uneven hierarchical distribution of power and influence set up as the structure of the organization. The organization therefore refers to a centralized structure. By centralized structure, it means a team of top level management takes ultimate responsibility of the running of the affairs of the company by providing guidelines which defines the direction of the firm. However there are group leaders from the various departments but the centralized leadership have oversight responsibilities over what happens under every department of the company. Let me hasten to say that the centralized organization structure work against efficiency and the overall effectiveness of the company. This is because every decision taken within the company has to be authenticated by centralized leadership which takes some amount of time. Decision making process would have been fast tracked if the different departments had the power to take certain key decisions to influence efficiency. However delivery of work becomes accurate since a lot more work goes into arriving at the critical decisions that influences the operations of the company.
Hierarchies within the organization
The hierarchies within the organization are affected by the high PDI and it makes it a lot more complex. This is to state that the fact that some personalities hold more power and influence than others as determined by the element of high DPI sways complexities as regards the hierarchies within the organization. In simple terms there are real complexities within the hierarchies and this takes a toll on the effectiveness of the company. The inefficiencies and ineffectiveness are seen in the flow of information and resources (Carlos, Rodrigues & Dibb, 2014). The flow of information and resources are two vital elements that promote the growth and stability of companies. But because the hierarchies are complex, information flow is affected to the highest degree and it hampers the overall effectiveness of the company XYZ. The channel of communication is multifaceted and does not aid free flow of information and resources. The implication is that there is the tendency for the people at the lower ranks within the organization to receive inaccurate information due to the level of complexities involved. Such situations lead to misunderstandings which often cause stalemate in the operations of the company.
Gaps in compensation, authority and respect
There is evidence that the high PDI affects the element of compensation, authority and respect within the organization (Katou, 2015). Due to the high hierarchical nature of the company, the gap is always widened with respect to compensation, authority and respect of the top level officials and the employees at the lower ranks. This is to say that there is a wide gap between the leaders and the subordinates when it comes to for instance compensation within the company. The similarly make them to command more respect and authority for which the lower rank employees have little or no option than to accept the state of affairs. This particularly affects the effectiveness of the subordinates due to lack of sufficient motivation and satisfaction. The point is that the large gap between my bosses and me regarding compensation makes me feel cheated and this affects my effectiveness of the roles I play within the organization. Most employees feel their compensation levels as well as the authorities and skills accorded them are inadequate comparatively. This therefore makes them feel not satisfied which demotivates them to give off their best in the interest of the company growth.
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Work group and teams as well as power and politics play a significant role in influencing the culture of an organization. The structure of an organization depends on configuration of the teams and work groups assigned with various tasks under the organization. The element of power and politics within the organization also influences the rules of engagement in the company. This has been proven by the work groups and teams and power and politics within company XYZ. There are scores of teams and workgroups within the company strategically set out to accomplish special tasks. There is the essence of collectivism that qualifies the operations of the various groups and teams within the organization. The element of collectivism facilitates the building of skills, motivation and rewards in addition to harmony within the various groups and teams serving under the company. The overall organizational culture is influenced by collectivism which rekindles collective efforts and promotes cooperation. The company is a functional structure where power and politics play a key role in the hierarchy of leadership. There is high PDI which affects the composition, hierarchies and gaps in compensation, authority and respect. For instance the high DPI actually substantiates complexity of the hierarchies which actually takes a toll on the flow of information and resources.
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