Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism

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Pulmonary Embolism (PE) and Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) are jointly designated as venous thromboembolism VTE (Blann, 2015). Venous thromboembolism is associated with extraordinary rates of mortality and morbidity as well as excessive healthcare cost. Other than stroke and acute coronary syndrome, venous thromboembolism is one of the most occurring cardiovascular illness in the Unites States. There are about 1,000,000 cases of venous thromboembolism out of which 300,000 die every year. Between 10 to 30% of individuals diagnosed with this particular disease process, die within a period of one month after diagnosis while about 33% of the remaining persons die within a period of 10 years (Gulanick & Myers, 2014). Deep Vein Thrombosis involves the formation of thrombus or blood clot inside deep veins that frequently occurs in legs. Embolization or detachment of the thrombus may relocate to the lungs thereby leading to a life-threatening complication referred to as Pulmonary Embolism (PE) (“Pulmonary Embolism: A complication of DVT,” 2016). Intrinsically, the patient may die suddenly if the diagnosed symptoms are not addressed within the required time. There are between 300,000 to 600,000 cases of Pulmonary Embolism occurring every year in the Unites States of America. About 50,000 to 200,000 deaths results from this condition each year and thus there is the need for a comprehensive plan to address this issue (“Pulmonary Embolism: A complication of DVT,” 2016). Although the rates are comparable between females and males, older individuals are more likely to be affected than younger individuals. Use of VTE prophylaxis has been recommended because of its ability to reduce mortality, morbidity and other associated health costs for hospitalized patients and those that have already undergone surgery. Consequently, VTE prophylaxis is a cost effective method of saving lives for individuals who are suffering from this disease (Chalfin & Rizzo, 2012). This study thus seeks to present a cost-effective way of preventing venous thromboembolism to patients.

Purpose of the Program

This quality enhancement program aims at safeguarding the right of patients to access the finest reliable and dependable venous thromboembolism preventive measures (Gulanick & Myers, 2014). Correspondingly, the program purpose to devise a substantiated and standardized cost effective strategy (Chalfin & Rizzo, 2012). This strategy will enable healthcare experts to diminish readmissions, identify individuals prone to this disease and reduce incidences of venous thromboembolism.

Target Population

This program aims at preventing venous thromboembolism for both female and male patients who are eighteen years and above and have been admitted for the disease, changed care level or have been discharged (Islam, 2016). The esteemed program (VTE prophylaxis) will be instigated within a period of twenty-four hours after the patients have accessed the hospital, admitted and diagnosed. At that moment, the risk factors will be accessed with the aim of categorizing the patients. Various levels of patients as far as venous thromboembolism is concerned to include high risk, temperate and low-risk patients (Gulanick & Myers, 2014). The analysis will enable the physician and other medical practitioners to offer the patients precise mechanical and pharmacologic prophylaxis as required by medical procedures.

Benefits of the Program

Venous thromboembolism is associated with extraordinary rates of mortality and morbidity as well as exaggerated healthcare cost. This program will reduce the rates of mortality and morbidity as evidenced by the available data from Deep Vein Thrombosis hospitalized patients (“Pulmonary Embolism: A complication of DVT,” 2016).  Consequently, VTE prophylaxis will reduce the cost associated with readmissions and prolonged healthcare practices. At the same time, the program will reduce the period that the patients are supposed to spend in the healthcare centers which further leads to a reduction in the cost of patient maintenance (Chalfin & Rizzo, 2012). Effective enrollment of this program can result in reduction of the risk associated with post-thrombotic complications and non-fatal as well as a fatal pulmonary embolism. Nevertheless, if effective results are to be realized, medical practitioners must follow suitable guidelines. Use of prophylaxis in venous thromboembolism is effective in surgical patients in that it is efficient and valuable in decreasing terminal pulmonary embolism (Gulanick & Myers, 2014). Correspondingly, VTE prophylaxis improves post-surgical effects and decreases the effects of both pulmonary embolisms as well as Deep Vein Thrombosis. Furthermore, it guarantees safety and enhances the frequent use of prophylactic approaches. Besides, VTE prophylaxis procedures are in agreement with policies and procedures set by the commission that accredits medical practices.

Cost Justification

In addition to safety VTE prophylaxis is not complicated but an efficient and cost-effectiveness method of preventing venous thromboembolism (Chalfin & Rizzo, 2012). The method is useful in that it leads to a reduction in other associated costs such as surgery and cost associated with other methods of treatment. Simultaneously, reduction in complication is expedient because it prevents superfluous and redundant losses that may result from complex management and treatment of the disease (Blann, 2015). Although some of the medications available for treatment of venous thromboembolism are operational and efficient, they are exceedingly expensive to the most patient and thus may be unsustainable. Inability to maintain affordable health care may result in other challenges such as stresses and depressions. Accordingly, the usefulness and value of using prophylaxis for preventing venous thromboembolism cannot be compared with processes of identification, management, and monitoring of venous thromboembolism (Islam, 2016). For instance, a patient with Pulmonary Embolism is estimated to spend $ 213 per day while the cost of treatment for venous thromboembolism is estimated to be more than $20,000. The cost of readmission is $11,862 more than the estimated cost of the initial admission. In some hospitals, the cost per day for treating is between $1,735 and $2,981 for the first seven days (Blann, 2015). All these excessive costs can be circumvented once VTE prophylaxis is put into use.

Program Evaluation

VTE prophylaxis is recognized both in and out the United States because of the strength regarding potential patient improvement and preventive measures that are based on evidence (Islam, 2016). As a consequence, the program will be evaluated by annual reports, excellent audits, regular committee meetings and other relevant considerations. All the information and related data obtained from various factors will be analyzed using information gathered from hospital databases and analyzed using distinctive hospital management software (Gulanick & Myers, 2014). Examples of such information and statistics include prophylactic approach employed, the proportion of nonsurgical or surgical patients exposed to preventive VTE prophylaxis, and recommendation for postoperative prophylaxis that takes place within the first twenty-four hours after admission (“Pulmonary Embolism: A complication of DVT,” 2016). Moreover, the period that the patient is admitted to hospital, discharge instructions, as well as the details of readmissions, will also be included in the analysis. Comprehensive audits will be done once every month while the resolve, Modalities and need for preventing venous thromboembolism will be done after every three months (Blann, 2015). Audits will be effective because they ensure that the programs observe to relevant guidelines, will realize the envisioned intentions, consistent with the requirements of the regulatory bodies and that it is cost effective. The final annual report will be submitted to the board, other applicable members and the C.E.O (Gulanick & Myers, 2014). The recommendations will them be sent to the assessment team for review as the management will see it fit.

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  1. Blann, A. (2015). Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism: A Guide for Practitioners. London: M & K Update Ltd.
  2. Chalfin, D. B., & Rizzo, J. A. (2012). Economics of critical care. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders.
  3. Gulanick, M., & Myers, J. L. (2014). Nursing care plans: Diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Mosby.
  4. Islam, M. S. (2016). Thrombosis and Embolism: from Research to Clinical Practice: Volume 1.
  5. Pulmonary Embolism: A complication of DVT. (2016, January 4). Retrieved December 21, 2016, from WebMD,
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