Problems of Instructions in Educational Setting

Subject: Psychology
Type: Descriptive Essay
Pages: 3
Word count: 860
Topics: Motivation, Teaching Philosophy, Teamwork


The purpose of this essay is to explain the problems of instructions in the educational sector and how they are related to the students learning activities and motivation. This involves identifying a problem in the educational sector in the field of student learning activities and motivation and explaining how the problems originated and have been discussed by various scholar. The approach used in this essay is analytical in nature. It analyses peer-reviewed articles in order to establish the instruction problems in the educational sector.  The report concludes that learning and student motivation has to be addressed and the various instructions which are provided should all be based on improving the level of outcome for the students. 

How the topic has been exposed and identified

In most of the problem based learning activities, the students are entrusted with their own learning experiences and activities because they have to act independently. One of the problems in is to whether allow the students to choose their own literature materials or to be provided with specific instructions regarding the use of literature sources. According to Wijniar, Loyens, Derous, and Schmidt (2015), they carried out a research on the effects of using the instructor based resources or using the student based resources on their learning outcome (Lisette Wijnia, 2015).  The results of the study show that the students like having their own resources to use in literature conditions because of the higher scores of motivation and competence achieved from the research.  Letting the students use their own materials and resources when doing research is, therefore, beneficial in improving motivation and the mental effort put in learning activities. 

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According to Gwo-Jen Hwang, Chun-Ming Hung & Nian-Shing Chen (2013), they did a study which proposed the use of peer-assessment development approach in improving the learning activities, motivation and also acquiring problem-solving skills (Gwo-Jen Hwang, 2014).  Through an experiment, the effectiveness of the peer assessment approach in an elementary school is investigated.  The problem under investigation was whether the peer assessment is a good approach in building learning experiences.  From the study, it was found out that peer assessment development approach is effective in the promotion of students learning, improving the student’s motivation, development in problem-solving skills and improving their perception towards education

Practices leading to the problem

There are various practices which can lead to the problem of providing instructions in the education setting. One of the practices is teaching competence and this affects instructions in the educational setting negatively when the competencies are lower (Xiao, 2012).  The motivation of the students is lowered and this may affect their overall outcome in the education sector. In such situations, the students usually prefer their own instructions and literature materials in coming up with their researches and they disregard the information which is provided to them by the teachers. 

Personal characteristics and cultural ties can also be another factor which has led to the escalation of the problem (Xiao, 2012). This is because the instructions on educational settings can be demotivating to some people when their personal characteristics and cultures don’t allow them to do that. Such students usually require their own resources and instructions which might favor their characteristics and beliefs.

The tutor-student relationship affects the way they perceive various instructions. If the relationship between the tutor and the students is good then peer assessment approach is important to build the motivation of the students and their learning outcomes (Gwo-Jen Hwang, 2014). The instructions provided by the tutors should be appropriate and they should not destroy the good relationship existing between tutors and students.

Steps taken to address the problem

In addressing the problem of providing instructions in the educational setting, there are three steps which have been introduced in order to solve the problems. One is the use of peer-assessment approach whereby the tutors are given the responsibility of providing instructions. The tutors provide deep learning instructions which are helpful to the students.  Another approach is using the students obtained resources rather than using the instructor selected resources. This makes the students be more motivated and engaged in the learning practices. Another approach is using the problem-based learning which improves the students experience in learning and makes them their problem-solving skills to be high (Stefanie Y. Chye, 2013). 

Possible resolution to the problem

The resolution to the problem can be solved through using the problem-based learning whereby the students are more engaged in learning activities and their problem-solving skills are improved (Andis Klegeris, 2011). In the education setting the motivation and learning experience can be improved further when the teachers are engaged in the student activities through using the problem-based learning. 

In the resolution of the problem, the students have to be allowed to use their own materials at times. This makes the student’s engagement in learning activities is high. Instructions have to be provided when there is a need and this makes the students be more motivated and feels comfortable while learning. Setting specific instructions makes the students be more disengaged in the learning processes and their motivation is usually lowered.

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  1. Andis Klegeris, H. H. (2011). The impact of problem-based learning in a large classroom setting: student perception and problem-solving skills. Advances in Physiology Education, 35(4), 408-415. Retrieved from
  2. Gwo-Jen Hwang, C.-M. H.-S. (2014). Improving learning achievements, motivations, and problem-solving skills through a peer assessment-based game development approach. Education Tech Research Dev, 62, 129–145. Retrieved from
  3. Lisette Wijnia, S. M. (2015). How important are student-selected versus instructor-selected literature resources for students’ learning and motivation in problem-based learning? Springer link, 43(1), 39–58. Retrieved from
  4. Stefanie Y. Chye, A. K. (2013). Student Teachers’ Motivation and Perceptions of E-Portfolio in the Context of Problem-Based Learning. Asia-Pacific Education Resource, 22(4), 367–375. Retrieved from
  5. Xiao, J. (2012). Tutors’ influence on distance language students’ learning motivation: voices from learners and tutors. journal of distance education, 33(2), 365-380. Retrieved from
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