The Brain and Mediumship Phenomena 

Subject: Science
Type: Analytical Essay
Pages: 46
Word count: 11738
Topics: Observation, Anatomy, Biology


The term Mediumship is normally used for referring to the state when a person communicates with spirits or even entities in whatever dimensions or realms possible (Bastos et al., 2015). The people who practice it are always able to get the information or the messages from these spirits by varying and tuning energy fields in their favor. Gauld (2012) affirms that the people who practice this are called Mediums,and they tend to receive information via many forms ofhearing or even seeing these spirits. They may also be able to communicate through smelling or tasting while other people do feel the messages that come from these spirits.

Some of the Mediums have been claiming that they often remain conscious whenever they are going through such a communication period, and other Mediums say that they undergo a “full trance” status meaning that they pass from the conscious state to the unconscious state (where their mental and physical processes get totally controlled by visitors in the spirit world (Bastos et al., 2015).As the Medium’s collective consciousness continues to expand, they naturally become tuned in towards themselves and even the other people around them. Such is a phenomenon that is quite enlightening since it activates the DNAcodes and makes them be able to discover their purpose and who they really are or why they are at such a place. 

The general opening of the Mediums’ psychic abilities that are also inherent can only be associatedwith the DNA code activation meaning that the cellular encoded memories can now be put to use after all. There is also the activation of their chakras while all in all, their frequency rose to balance the energy bodies or their self-esteem.Gauld (2012) says that their ability to be able to trust the items or contents they are ‘hearing’, or ‘feeling’, and even ‘seeing’ is also enlightened by this encoding of DNA so as to improve the emotional state while still expanding the Mediums’ knowledge base within areas for this physical reality.

Mediumship may also be referred to asa process whereby the human becomes the instrument of medium or simply a channel which is used for thepurposes ofachieving the presentation of information that is also verifiable or even otherwise, causes the activities that are so-called paranormal to occur, brings aboutchannellingof certain energy types while also manifesting themselves to objective examination or even identification as Gauld (2012) affirms in his study.

From such aperspective, one is able to notice the following ideas about mediumship. It is apparent that it indeed involves the cooperation of the effort between the person upon the Earth (a medium or even a channel) together with the person within the Spirit (known as the communicator) (Bastos et al., 2015).There also happens to be several objectives that are behind the overall manifestation of the essence of mediumship. Again, mediumship can also be used by the people in Spirit to achievevariouspurposessuch as thepresentation of information and manifestation of themselves in a material way. The essence of mediumship may also involve cooperation in between thetwo individuals.This involves the Earth-plane medium or even channel,and the spirit operator or even communicator as Robertson and Biaggioni (2012) affirms.

According to Rose (2015), the spirit that uses this medium for communication, in either any verbal means or any visual means, may be referred to asthe spirit communicator. The spirit that uses this medium for any intention of working together with manipulating the energies or even energy systems may be referred to asthe spirit operator. Such a distinction proves to be very general. Thus it should be also noted that the spirit operator may be able to communicate. Thus, the essence of mediumship may be distinguished to form two basic categories in the name ofmental mediumship and that of physical mediumship as referred to as Gauld (2012).

Mediumsmayalsorequiresometraining within their minds so as to acquire this sense. Some of the practices which bring about the training can be identified as mediumship which helps in achievement of the ability. Some of the clairvoyant mediums have been able to the entity as if it possesses a body that is physical in nature. They happen to see this bodily form to be as if they were present in a physical state while other mediums tend to see this entity using the mind’s eye same as the vision from a television program within their mind (Bastos et al., 2015).TheMedium tends to feel some kind of sensations inside the body of their energy fields (also known as the auric fields) for these physical together with spiritual realms.Psychometry can also be regarded to as the other aspect of this mediumship aspect. Psychometry happens to be an ability to hold an object or sensing these energy fields which surrounds an item (Bastos et al., 2015).

From this perspective, the mental mediumship can be taken to involve a relationship between information, communication (through varied aspects for thought transference) and even mental telepathy for that matter. The essence of mental telepathy simplybringsaboutinformation through thought even without the use of any physical senses as Halloy (2016) alludes to. The mental mediumship may take place ina consciousmind as its medium, the results being expressed verbally whilepassing through a medium’s mouth. By the use of thistelepathic nature, the idea of mental mediumship may sometimes be referred to imply the telepathic mediumship (Bastos et al., 2015).

By this demonstration of the idea of mental mediumship, Halloy (2016) notes that it is such a medium thathearsor sees and even feels what these spirit communicators may be relating to in general. Furthermore, the medium is the one who functions as the relay of this information, while providing a minimum amount of personal influence or even prejudice, as it is relayed to the recipient for this message, which may also be known to as a sitter. Thus, the medium may be able to receivesuch information under the various states for control. 

Gauld (2012) also says that the physical mediumship may involve manipulation or even a transformation of the physical systems together with energies within their own environments matter of fact. Spirit operators, in this case, may be seen to cause something upon the plane of the Earth. Whatever also happens actually tends to vary with the given style for this mediumship phenomenon being involved, while noting that the results may be seen or even heard by the others. 

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Brain Interpretation of Consciousness

According to Rose (2015), ‘consciousness’ happens to be the ability to combine much more information in a manner that is efficient until it yields a certain ability to analyze the abstract concepts in nature. Consciousness can be explained as an imagination of the difference between the image in the brain of a person to that of the digital camera. This particular raw image happens to be similar whether it is on the camera screen and in the person’s head altogether. The camera may treat every pixel independently as it does not recognize the object while the brain, on the other hand, manages to combine various parts of this image so as to identify the particular object which generates the image in the brain of a person. The camera in this sense may be regarded to be ‘unconscious’ while the brain of a human being is considered to be ‘conscious’ (Halloy, 2016).

This can be used to explain how the brain of a human clearly processes the given information but a question arises about the heightened consciousness in a human’s brain when compared to that of say, a mouse. Robertson and Biaggioni (2012), from their study, believes that size of our brain can automatically be linked to consciousness where he adds that the brain of a human has neurons close to 86 billion while that of a mouse has 75 million. While his argument portrays that our brains have more nerves since they are bigger and hence can be able to form complex thoughts, it doesn’t explain where the consciousness arises from.

The brain size is not a determinant factor as such for the consciousness but rather the structures or areas that the brain consists in a single entity. For instance, Rose (2015) the cerebellum in the human brain is found at the base,and it does contain around 70 billion of the total neurons within the brain, while cerebral cortex is found at the top part of the human brain and it does contain about 16 billion neurons. 

Again, a situation would arise where the consciousness of a person would remain if it happened that part of their brain was to be cut off from their cerebellum, but they would end up walking in a lopsided manner while still functioning with these conscious thoughts. But if the cortex were to be cut even a little bit (especially the outer folds of it in the brain), then the conscious thought may severely be diminished as the human’s life gets impacted in a drastic manner. Judging from this fact, one may conclude that the general number of cells in the brain does not necessarily have a relationship to the conscious thought (Halloy, 2016).

Becoming Conscious

It is apparent that the most primal regions of a human brain (like that of brain stem or even that of the cerebellum) indeed acts just the way a camera acts in nature. Just the way a camera acts, these parts of the brain are responsible for generally receiving the individual information in pieces as it comes from the sensory organs,but they do not link the data together. Move higher up in the brain; therehappen to be several links that form between the different aspects of the sensory experiences in the brain (Halloy, 2016). Such a linking process begins in the midbrain structures (in the likes of the thalamus section),and these links become more intricate or somehow permanent as they move towards the cerebrum section of the brain.

Robertson and Biaggioni (2012) believe that such linking of data or information comes from the basis of consciousness. The cells become interlinked as the information is combined readily thereby bringing about the essence of this complicated thought in the human brain. This implies that more links happening between the cells brings a possibility of combinations and also a bigger number of the prior mentioned ‘thoughts.’

According to Rose (2015), there happen to be more neurons within the cerebellum as compared to the cerebrum, but since its cells are not extensively linked, it cannot form many complicated thoughts that the cerebrum part of the brain. Whenever information has been relayed upwards as it comes from the cerebellum, it happens to pass to the neurons which have many connections that can bring about many abstract links. Multiplication of these processes by a number of times means that the various cells can be able to hold combined information such as that of smell, the taste, and even color  as they come together in the creation of a clear representation for the object, hence referred to as consciousness.

The key to it is that the various cells at this basic level have to focus meaning that they should not have the message they are bound to convey as the conflict in the data or information being conveyed. This, therefore, provides a better entity for building up some complicated information just from the small bits of data relayed to the cells. According to Jahn (1982), it is this ability of combination for lots of relayed information in an efficient manner that yields ability for analyzing the abstract concepts thereby bringing about the essence of consciousness.

Becoming Unconscious

Jahn (1982) believes the essence of unconsciousness can be brought out whenever a system that is being used by the brain becomes fragmented or when the connectivity decreases within the human brain. This is similar to what normally happens during deep sleep by someone at all times (especially when they do not have any dream), simply put they are under the general anesthetic in nature. It is normal that whenever someone is awake or alert, there is fast activity being found in manyplaces of their brain meaning that there are many signals being passed in any of the areas within the brain. Whenever a human goes into deep sleep, their brain happens to move to the state of unconsciousness where no signals are passing between different regions of the brain. Robertson and Biaggioni (2012) believe that all cells in the human brain temporarily shuts down any of their connections onto each other so as to be able to rest or even recuperate, and by doing so, they lose interconnectivity which is associated to bigger thought processes.

It may purely seem to be a farfetched suggestion by saying that consciousness can purely be a status that depicts high interconnectivity, and this interconnectivity is very crucial in achieving a higher power of the brain. There is a question of the reason as to why people from a state of conscious thoughts and many regards this as being more of philosophical but a fundamental property for their brains. Rose (2015) says that evolution by man has indeed led to their brains becoming highly efficient in the processing of complex information, so as to give many possible thoughts. Such a vast contingent of thought has expanded to giving reasons for this consciousness, and it governs the consciousness within their very own brains.

Mind versus Brain

The mind has constantly been referred to or considered as a pure energy that is in constant vibrating. Rose (2015) says it is the element (which is non-physical in nature) that conducts “the thought” in a faster manner than light speed while retaining all the experience whether it was consciously addressed or not. The mind is also capable of creating substance from almost nothing as it has an aura in the form of energy. This form of energy is also capable of projecting thoughts towards other minds or receiving data from these minds. It does communicate using a language that encompasses feeling. The mind also has a very profound effect on the level of energy within any physical body that has been able to temporarily house this energy or even possesses the general capacity to bring healing to others. This has been considered in many circles to be “the Spark of the Divine” or the wave that has vast limitless such as the ocean for cosmic. The mind, given its infinite intelligence, is capable of doing these unbelievable things.

According to Davidson & Lutz (2007), the brain can simply be regarded as the physical manifestation of the mind and therefore a very complex idea for one to grasp. There is a big difference between the mind and the brain of a person in that, they are interconnected,but they do function in the same manner. For instance, almost 80% of the number of people who may have lost their limb after being involved in an accident or it may be due to some illness always report a feeling of excruciating pain, or a burning sensation or even aching as though the missing part of their body is crushing at that time even though this limb is missing. Such a phenomenon can be referred to phantom limb. Davidson and Lutz (2007) say that such sensations that bring this pain may be created in the brain of the person and it is experienced in no different manner than someone who has the limb.

From this point of view, the human brain is deemed to be composed of three structures which are indeed principle and also the largest of the three. The cerebrum is found at the center of the intellectual functioning together with reasoning. Cerebellum happens to be the second of these structures,and it is located on the backside of the skull. The section helps people to be able to stand or not fall. The section also helps in balancing of the body. The other structure happens to be the medulla, which happens to be the stem leading to the spinal column. It helps in handling involuntary tasks such as respiration. Pradhan and Dutt (1995) say that the three structures also work in togetherness so as to help the body carry out its role for cognition. However, it is not the mind since the mind isn’t a physical entity. Consciousness or even the mind of a person cannot be regarded to as matter. 

The mind can also be regarded as a general activity from the precincts of our brain. The better description that can be accorded to the brain and the mind in neutrality is as depicted by the Well-Being Triangle; with every point on the triangle being an essential component for the mental health and eventual mediumship at large.  One of the points represents a physical brain together with the nervous system. These happen to be mechanisms which are used by energy, especially during the process of mediumship and flow of data or information throughout the human beings. The various senses on a human body take in this information at their environment,and such information becomes an electrical signal that travels through a human being’s nervous system until it arrives at the brain to give it a certain meaning while still giving a perquisite response through the release of neurochemicals. This can also be done by merely dispatching some electrical signals that can be able to regulate the human body, or even control movement while influencing the emotions.

The human being’s mind tends to observe or even monitor the overall flow in energy or the information moving across time altogether with modification upon it so as to grant this data patterns and characteristics that are deemed necessary.

Since there is a concept referred to as the “neuroplasticity”, (the overall capacity of a certain brain creating newer neural connections or even growing newer neurons as its response towards thoughts or even some experience), every point on this triangle happens to influence other points, making sure that the energy flow or the information flow along this very triangle move in all the directions. Davidson and Lutz (2007) say that such a mind is capable of changing the structure of the brain or even the overall relationships. Again, the brain is capable of changing the structure of this mind or the relationships involved in the mix.  In that regard, the relationships capable of changing the structure of both the human being’s mind together with that of the brain.

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Brain and Thoughts

Thoughts are simply electrochemical reactions that are hard to understand since they are so many in number and they are also very complex reactions in nature. The brain of a human being is normally composed of around 100 billion neurons or nerve cells,and these nerve cells are usually interconnected by other connections in a tune of trillions. These connections are called synapses,and on average, they do transmit one signal in every second. Lutz et al., (2008) says that there are also specialized connections within the human brain that send around 1,000 signals in every second. This specialized transmission of almost 1,000 signals in every second is the one which produces thought in the human beings brain at large. 

Given this kind of physical complexity that describes what is really happening inside the brain of a human being, it becomes very difficult to make a trace of any thought that comes from the beginning to the end. In consideration of perceptions, “thoughts” are born as they are directly triggered through external stimuli such as a brush on the skin by a feather, seeing words on a computer screen, or hearing the phone ring. Pradhan and Dutt (1995) say that all these events end up triggering signals in a series within the brain.

For instance, whenever someone is reading certain words on paper, the photons in the atmosphere associated to various letter patterns hit the retina while their energy happens to trigger the electrical signal within cells that are light-detecting. This electrical signal will eventually propagate through the system through the long threads referred to as the axons (part of the various connections between different neurons). As the signal reaches towards the axon end, it triggers the chemical neurotransmitters release to flow through the synapse, (basically the chemical junction in between an axon tip to the target neurons in the whole system). The target neuron then responds by producing certain electrical signals which will eventually spread through the use of neurons. Within very few milliseconds in hundreds, this signal spreads into billions of the neurons that are interconnected inside the brain,and it starts to perceive the words in full. (It does all without even breaking a sweat.) All this amounts to the concept of thought.

Within this creativity perspective, the thoughts may be seen as a formation of the mind trying to characterize, or describing and even somehow explain the flow of energy as the body perceives it. The characterization by the mind is normally based on the very past experiences or how a person has been able to focus their attention or even awareness. This is an implication as to whether such a thought has been experienced in terms of a general idea, or simply an image, or it might be a representation of a vision to bring some awareness to be able to know something without explaining why it matters. Lutz et al., (2008) say that thoughts are simply the human mind being able to play around with the flowing energy being experience. By so doing, the concept of thought can simply be regarded to be consciousness which is at play by the energy flowing.

Judging this concept of thought from the creativity perspective, a human being happens to be a very creativity machine matter of fact. The machine, therefore, allows us to take the flowing energy and be able to create thoughts which can then be transformed or even converted into actions within the world in overall. The body acts as a machine and therefore gives us a special ability for creating some material forms from something that was formless energy prior to the perception, thereby giving out a particular thought. It also gives a certain ability to createthoughts from nothing while manifesting them into “Physical Creations” in nature such as an object or even an experience.

Pradhan and Dutt (1995) say that this thoughts creation is seemingly out of nothingness and the general process for this conversion involves the conversion of the flowing energy into particles that do not rest as an analogous mass would. From the “The duality of mind” topic which talks about the thought and the human mind, creation of the thought may be regarded to be the “anti-thought” residing within the aspect of non-conscious in mind.

This implies that the mind is a greater creative tool in the body of the brain and simply acts in the same way a radio antenna receives signals. The mind is designed to sense and hence be able to amplify a certain type of energy then ultimately be able to determine the general receptiveness for this flowing energy in creation. From this point of view, the body senses the energy that is flowing and makes some awareness localized within the physical environment of any human being. Lutz et al., (2008) say that this energy sensed is then transformed into various thoughts which are infinite in nature. The human mind just like the antennae or the radio receiver is subject to tuning to a certain energy. 

Storage of Memories in the Brain

Memories that are generated in the human brain aren’t stored in one portion of the whole brain. There happen to be different types of these memories,and that means they get stored across various regions in the brain,and the regions are also interconnected. For instance, Pradhan and Dutt (1995) affirm that there happen to be explicit memories (the memories occurring about events which may have happened to the body of a human in an episodic pattern), and there are also general facts or the information being gathered in the brain of a human being (that which occurs in a semantic pattern). Travis and Shear (2010)say that there happen to be three key areas of the brain where these memories are stored: the hippocampus, that of the amygdala together with the neocortex. There are also implicit memories, (for example the motor memories) which are normally stored in the cerebellum while others of the implicit nature are stored in the basal ganglia of the human brain. There are also the short-term memories which are mostly stored in the prefrontal cortex of the brain in a human being as Lutz et al., (2008) ascertain.

The general storage of memories can be summarised as below.

Storage of Explicit Memories

The explicit memories are generally stored in three areas within the brain of a human,and they include the hippocampus, the amygdala together with that of the neocortex.


This region known as the hippocampus is located within the temporal lobe of the human’s brain and has the episodic memories not only formed in it, but they are also indexed there for later access. Lutz et al., (2008) say that these episodic memories can be regarded as the autobiographical memories that come from the specific events occurring in the human life such as tea they had last week with their best friend.


This is known as the largest portion of the brains’ cerebral cortex (a sheet made of neural tissue that forms outside surface for the brain) and is very distinctive within the higher mammals because of the wrinkly appearance it has (Lutz et al., 2008). The neocortex found in humans helps in doing the higher functions of the brain such as the sensory perception, or even generation for the motor commands, or even the spatial reasoning together with the government of the language. Given some time, this information that is gathered from the memories temporarily stored within the hippocampus may be transferred into the neocortex making up general knowledge. ResearchersPradhan and Dutt (1995) say thatthis transfer which is from hippocampus towards the neocortex always happen during sleeping time.


Another section of memory storage is known as the amygdala. It is in an almond shape within the temporal lobe of the human brain,and it happens to attach the emotional significance of these memories. Pradhan and Dutt (1995) say that some of the emotional memories that are strong (such as those of shame or those which depict joy and love together with grief) may be difficult to ever forget. Such memories may suggest that the interactions between the amygdala, the hippocampus together with the neocortex happen to be very crucial while determining “stability” for a certain memory or its effectiveness over time.

Storage of Implicit Memory

Storage of the implicit memories is also bound to happen within two regions of the brain namely the cerebellum together with the basal ganglia (Lutz et al., 2008).

Basal ganglia 

These basal ganglia simply involve structures that are lying deep into the human brain,and it tends to get involved in wide range processes like emotions, processing of rewards,theformation of habit, learning, and even movement. Pradhan and Dutt (1995) say that the basal ganglia are also involved in the general coordination of sequences within the motor activity, such as it happens when playing a certain musical instrument, or even dancing. These basal ganglia happen to be the regions which are mostly affected by the Parkinson’s disease. Such situations are evident whenever Parkinson’s patients use impaired movements from one place to the other.


It is the separate structure which is located in the rarest base within the human brain. The cerebellum is very important during the control of fine motor thereby allowing us to be able to use chopsticks with ease or pressing the piano keys more softly. The best example for the cerebellar motor happens to be that of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (it lets a human being be able to maintain a gaze upon a certain location even as they rotate their heads (Lutz et al., 2008).

Storage of Working Memory

It is generally stored in a single portion of the brain called the Prefrontal cortex.

Prefrontal cortex

It is that section of neocortex within the brain,and it happens to sit at the front part of the human being’s brain. This portion of the brain is indeed involved in doing many complex functions that are also cognitive in nature. The left side of the prefrontal cortex is much more involved within the memory that brings about the verbal working,and the right side is more of active for the memory of spatial working involving things such as remembering where a light flash just occurred (Lutz et al., 2008).

The spontaneous activity measured from the cortex region of the brain can be classified in four broad groups that are based upon their own frequencies, ranging from delta waves with lower frequency (at less than 4 Hz) which emerge during sleep up to the beta waves (ranging from 13 to 30 Hz) which are associated to the brain being awake or even alert. The comprehensive reviews and analyses of the activities during this process of mediumship are given in the table below.

The Cosmic Brain

People are generally used to the idea of assigning consciousness to the human thought only forgetting that some adjustment may also be regarded towards the cosmic or even universal way, thereby managing to apply it at many levels. The idea of cosmic consciousness is therefore real and totally necessary in the ideal universe. The cosmic brain which brings about the idea of cosmic consciousness indeed helps in the rescue of physics or even science from its dead end (total inability for it to be able to create the mind from physical matter) while giving it some fresh outlook. Having these universes that are emerging from empty spaces cannot be able to explain the reason as to why consciousness occurs the way it does in the universe.

The essence of quantum theory explains the source of matter or energy is a vacuum, or simply nothingness and it essentially contains many possibilities for everything which existed. Such possibilities have been able to emerge as being simply probabilities before they “collapse” to form localized quanta that are capable of manifesting itself in the various particles within the space or time of building blocks such as atoms and even molecules (Lutz et al., 2008).

Some of these conceptions happen to be made less of bizarre after realizing that the consciousness operates in the same manner. The babies have been seen as being born with a given potential of walking, or being able to speak, being able to read, or even doing some mathematics. There is a bigger possibility of locating the areas of the brain which produces such abilities that are merely existent as potentials of carrying out these things. This implies that being wedded to the idea of materialism means that there is this molecule (or the DNA) which essentially functions asacontrol for speaking, or makes the human walk, helps them to read, or even be able to do mathematics. Pradhan and Dutt (1995) say that this assumption fails because no credit can be given to the DNA to imply that it really knows how to perfume math and such a notion would give it a mind. Again, can one be able to buy into a belief that Shakespeare together with other revolutionists of the word was merely getting inspiration from components such as the amino acids or even proteins that actually produceDNA? Absolutely. Not.

Our universe generally happens to be a matter for transformation where anything that is available is always turned to become a perception. Consciousness may then be proposed as something which turns such perceptions into thoughts, sensations, images, and feelings. The existing consciousness tries to utilize the human brain to act like the processing device, so as to move the molecules from one place to where they might be needed so as to create things like sight, or sound and even smell. Other thing achieved from such a transformation may be regarded as touch or even taste in general.

Within every human being’s life, they get an experience such as that of transformation which then causes the spatial world that is three-dimensional or even a temporal world that is one-dimensional as it manifests before their very eyes. An advantage of such an experience may be identified as the experience not being theoretical at all and in that case, reality has never been wrong, meaning that everyone happens to be embedded within reality (Pradhan &Dutt, 1995).

Consciousness after the Death of a Brain

The essence of consciousness after the death of a human brain has been a very common theme within the cultural context of many societies together with the idea of having a life after this death of the brain. Pradhan and Dutt (1995) ascertain that the human mind together with consciousness is closely related to the brain and its general physiological functioning or even the cessation that defines the death of a human brain. However, there has been believing in many societies in the sense that there happens to be life after the death or the brain and it has been a feature of many religions.

The essence of consciousness indeed tends to arise from various physical processes that take place within a human brain. Therefore, thedeath of the human brain goes with the consciousness in it. It is as straightforward as that to imply that consciousness happens to be a product from the human brain and whenever there is a scenario where the brain together with the heart-stopping to function, then the essence of consciousness shall also cease to be existent. Unfortunately, there has been some evidence which has been emerging to depict that this belief hasn’t been the case.

Hundreds of such cases have been documented (and thereis the likelihood that such cases in thousands haven’t been documented) in which there are people that have had these experiences of near death. The near-death experience simply means that the bodies had been pronounced dead for a substantial time and then later they came back to life. They are able then to vividly make a recount of whatever happened during their near-death experience. Others have been found to give a very clear account with such an eerie accuracy for whatever procession was going around them after they had ‘died’ in this manner (Lutz et al., 2008).

Many have been able to assume that these experiences which are related to death may likely be their hallucinations or even various illusions which occur either before their hearts have stopped or even after their hearts have successfully been restarted,and many of the instances have not been experienced as ‘real’ events as the heart has stopped beating. Judging by such cases, the essence of consciousness or even awareness for that matter may have occurred during the short period with no heartbeat. Pradhan and Dutt (1995) say that such an assumption can be regarded to as being paradoxical because the brain can be seen to typically cease its overall functioning only after 20-30 seconds when the heart has stopped and cannot be able to resume until the human heart is restarted. 

The Holographic Function of Brain

The term hologram may be defined as an image that is three-dimensional in nature. According to a brain theory that is known as the holonomic, the idea of cognitive function for the brain seems to be guided with the use of a matrix from the interference patterns of the neurological wave which are situated temporally within the holographic perception at the Gestalt. They are also discrete, more effective and of the quantum vectors which are derived from the potentials which happen to be reward anticipated.

The human brain can be described as working in the form of a hologram in the sense that the brain seems to have a holographicnetwork of storage. It does not store its memories in the same place throughout.The processes in the human brain involve some electric oscillations produced by fine-fibered webs of the dendritic patterns,and this is different in comparison to the more ones which are known as the action potentials that involving the axons together with thesynapses.Such oscillations are in the form ofwaves,andthey may create some wave interference in the sense of patterns which the human brain memory happens to be encoded upon naturally. These waves can be analyzed so as to note the similarities that exist between these processes in the humanbrain and subsequent storage of the information such as thehologram.For such a pattern the long-term piece of memory can similarly be distributed over the dendritic arbourto illustrate that each part of this dendritic networkmight contain information that is stored to this entire network(Lutz et al., 2008).Pradhan and Dutt (1995) say that this simply means that a certain cell in the brain might be able to receive some input that comes from a dozen cells while sending this output to others in overall.

A better solution to this may simply be splitting or even blocking the beam to form several smaller beams that are also parallel in manner. This shall be able to allow hitting several spots of the beams in a manner that is simultaneous,but again it may suffer from a major problem of having all spots lying on the similar 2D “slice” (Lutz et al., 2008).

Holographic Representation of the Cosmos

It is very interesting to study about holograms since one may be able to discover that these holograms are indeed formed from waves. A holographic brain tends to depict this in the above images. For instance, visualization of water in a pool gives a clear picture of how waves may be able to generate a hologram. Dropping a pebble in the still water inside the pool happens to disturb the water surface and creates several waves which spread out in concentric circles. Dropping another pebble at another place of water inside the same pool of water indeed generates the second pattern of waves,and whenever these waves are going to meet, they definitely create a pattern of interference (Lutz et al., 2008). This means that they interfere with another while breaking up into very complex patterns that have peaks together with troughs. This series of waves now becomes jumble waves while still generating an observable patter as demonstrated by the chaotic jumble. 

For that matter, the jumble can be used to represent a hologram that was being made from the prior discussion using the light beams as they also created an interference pattern form the beam laser while generating images that are realistically holographic in nature. Pradhan and Dutt (1995) affirm that a material universe is also a form of the mental construct which is simply masked with a reality of deeper metaphysics.It is apparent that a human brain is capable of employing same algorithms for interpreting the “reality” which is also used in the whole process for the construction of a hologram. 

The human holographic brain indeed provides an opportunity for the surfing of larger waves within our own consciousness bringing out the full representation of the cosmos waves. Matter of fact, it might even follow the cultural conditioning that has ever told us this doesn’t exist at all. Pradhan and Dutt (1995) say that it could, therefore, be concluded that the holographic world has everything that we are able to see, or feel, or taste and even be able to hear not being illusory. It can, therefore, be regarded as being part of the greater vast reality. 

All this can be quantified under the holographic theory for the whole universe. In this universe, it should be noted that the whole world that we see is indeed part of the general explicate order which also happens to follow classical physics rules in nature. Beyond this reality comes with it the implicate order that contains all that has ever been, all that is currently and also all that shall be in their own potentiality as a replicate of the reality. A holographic representation of this Cosmos universe has whole sections being included as parts,and it is without adoubt that everything happens to be connected.

Brain as a Radio/waves Transmitter

It is apparent that all the information within the universe seems to be transmitted through the essence of radio waves and the human brain is capable of perceiving all this information from our universe while also transmitting it in the form of waves to the necessary point just likes the radio would do. Human brains happen to have a certain form ofametal mapfortheirsurroundings or environment,and this consists of the place cells. Such cells correspond to the places within their physical space or are brought to functioning whenever the animal arrives at a place they do remember. The brains, therefore,havetuning knob which works as transmitters for any information about such places. Pradhan and Dutt (1995) say that these tinyimplantsin the form of electrodes maybe able to collect or even send information towards thecellsintheindividual brainwhich is at work. 

This ‘tuning knob’ which is actually the main element that aids in influencing the behavior in humans and forms the circuits that are also able to tune into various frequencies within the range of other parts of the same brain relevant to that particular time interval. Again, it should be noted that this mental map can only be fed by information of two kinds: memories that come from the earlier experiences together with the realistic sensory information it has in it. It is however very tricky for one to come to an understanding of how the mental map is capable of uploading such information (Lutz et al., 2008).

The direct measurements on a brain in a study by Pradhan and Dutt (1995) show that the general memory information happens to be sent through the use of another frequency within our mental maps rather than making use of the sensory information. Taking the brain to be a general representation of our mental map helps us to synchronize such frequencies in the same manner in which the radio receiver acts. The brain tunes into such information which may happen to be important in that particular instance. 

The essence of the brain being able to transmit in the form of radio waves helps in broadness for many researchers to be able to explain the reason as to why there are various parts in the brain that choose the relevant information using the essence of constant scattering for the neurons that go into the brain. This is a depiction of transfer of information within the brain.By the use of several implants that have been placed in mice brains, neuroscientists have discovered that a brain generally has tuning knob and they also work in a perfect manner for that matter. These tiny electrodes that have been implanted in the brain have been able to collect and also send this information to the brain cells which may be working on the issue (Lutz et al., 2008).

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Brain Waves Frequency Humans

The human brain has for a long time been known to be essentially an organ that is mostly electrochemical,and many researchers such as Pradhan and Dutt (1995) say that have made speculations that ascertain generation of around 10 watts in any brain that may fully be functional. He further estimates that if it was possible for the 10 billion nerve cells that are interconnected to discharge at once and it is passed through an electrode, a volt could be realized,a matter of fact he even says that hooking up many scalps could produce a greater voltage that is capable of lighting a bulb.

Pradhan and Dutt (1995) say that such an electrical power in the human brain happens to be very limited, but it occurs through specific ways while trying to display brainwaves. These brainwaves are four in number,and they range from highest activities to those activities that have a lower electrical power hence of least activity. 

The Brainwaves

Whenever a brain becomes aroused,or it is actively being engaged in various mental activities, thereisageneration of beta waves. Such beta waves happen to have a relatively lower measure of amplitude, and they are also the fastest of all these brainwaves. Beta waves frequencies tend to range from a mere 15 cycles and up to 40 cycles in every second as Pradhan and Dutt (1995) affirm in their study. Beta waves represent arousal in the human mind and can be associated with the mind being strongly engaged such as having an active conversation or whenever a person is giving a speech. It is also depicted during teacher or during a talk show on television.

The next category of brainwave depending on their general frequency happens to be the alpha. The alpha brainwaves indeed represent non-arousal according to Pradhan and Dutt(1995), since the brainwaves tend to be slower and they normally have an amplitude that is a little bit higher. It frequency occurs between 9 cycles up to 14 cycles in every second. This can be depicted by a person that has just completed their task,and they may be sitting down so as to rest. Whenever a person is reflecting upon something, they are said to be in a state of alpha. 

A state that comes next is that of theta brainwaves which have greater amplitude but a frequency that is slower, ranging from 5 cycles up to 8 cycles in every second as Pradhan and Dutt (1995) affirm. This state is normally depicted by a person that might have taken some time off or even a break from doing a certain task. They immediately begin daydream. It can also be seen in a person who might be driving on the way that is flowing freely, especially as they discover in their mind that they are not able to account how they traversed the past five miles. Such a state may also be visualized whenever a person is in a shower or when they are shaving or even when they are brushing their hair. The state comes when a person is carrying out tasks that minds can disengage from with ease. It could also be depicted whenever someone is very idle (Lutz et al., 2008).

Delta is indeed the final state of brainwave,and they have the biggest amplitude with a very slow frequency, ranging from around 1.5 cycles up to 4 cycles in every second. According to Pradhan and Dutt (1995), these brainwaves never go up to zero since that would imply that you that person is in reality brain dead. However, he affirms that deep sleep that is indeed dreamless can take a person down up to a very low frequency until they acquire this state.

Whenever a person awakes coming from a deeper sleep of the night in preparation to getting up, it is apparent that the frequencies of their brainwave shall increase in different stages for its brainwave activity. It increases from that of the delta, goes to theta, moves to alpha,and then it finally goes to beta after the alarm has gone off. 

Research has been able to show that even though a single brainwave state tries to predominate during a given time, (and this is dependent upon the level of activity in any individual), other three states of the brainwave are still present at every time of the brain functioning. This implies that somebody may be in a state of arousal in an exhibition of the beta brainwave, but looking at them keenly reveals that there is still an alpha component in the person’s brain or even that of theta and even delta in trace levels (Lutz et al., 2008).

The essence of brainwave states indeed enhances the person’s ability for them to use several specialized characteristics while in such states as they continue to be mentally productive across or intensely focused. It also helps in the relaxing mood, or in the creative state and when they are restfully asleep.

Brain Activity and Brain Waves 

Whenever someone undergoes a state ofmediumship, the brain of this person undergoes four states in his mind as it continues to operate within these predominant frequencies of the brainwave as Bastos et al. (2015) affirms to. The different states together with the brain activity that a human mind undergoes through during mediumship are described as below.

Beta Brainwaves

According to De Oliveira and Krippner (2013), the process of mediumship makes the mind of a person to undergo the state of beta, where their brain operates with full conscious and pronounced awareness. They have a full attention to anything and everything around them,andusually, it is only a small side of their brain that is indeed operating at such an instance. Higher Frequency cycles for this Beta state have been associated with having stress or even anxiety while others have been regarded to be overthinking. Therefore, their conscious mind indeed becomes misguided and may end up reacting negatively to any given situation. Therefore, Bastos et al. (2015) says that the essence of mediumship helps a person to be able to handle the various issues which may arise from the general problems in the life of a person.

Alpha Brainwaves

The alpha state is normally achieved by a person undergoing the process of mediumship whenever their brain generally operates with a typified conscious that also has partial awareness together with the partial subconscious that is predominant in the same instance as Oliveira and Krippner (2013) puts it. Mediumship indeed helps the person to absorb more information from the surrounding environment whenever they fall into the alpha state and this makes the state to be considered as being one of the highly desirable states for effective mediumship. The alpha state also promotes the use of left side for the human brain in the processing of data or information during mediumship.

Theta Brainwaves

Halloy (2016)and Loveland (2013) ascertains that theta brainwaves are considered to be triggered by a pure state of deep relaxation where the mind consciousness is ‘switched off,’ during the process of mediumship andthe person experiences excellent psychic at this stage. This goes on for quite some time while the subconscious mind gets left out to continue flourishing. This can also be typified by the status of sleep or dreaming, or even deep relaxation depicted by those going through the process of mediumship. Bastos et al. (2015) reassures such a notion by saying that hypnotists may also aim at the idea of taking this path. These theta brainwaves depict a state in which they are visualizing greater things while there are general suggestions entering their minds for the subconscious. Consciously, they become less aware of what might be going on in their environments or around them for that matter. Some of the things experienced are such as a transcend through space and even time, while obtaining remote perceptions which make the person achieve information of the highest order.

Delta Brainwaves

Whenever a person is going through the process of mediumship, there is a possibility that they may be under a state of delta brainwaves and at this, they are normally in extremely,or very deep relaxation or even some may be in deep sleep while in this mediation process. It is a state that brings some complete subconscious. This can be experienced with very deep sleep while the physical body may begin the process of recuperation or even recovery that is heightened.De Oliveira and Krippner (2013) and Halloy (2016)reaffirms that the human mind is within the universal consciousness and it is apparent as the most developed state of the mind.

Brain Wave Changes during Mediumship

During mediumship, the betawavesrange from 29 to 11 Hertz. They do have very low amplitudes together with multiple frequencies. It is also associated with activeness or being very busy or even anxious in thinking together with the activeness in concentration during the act of mediumship.There is also the higher betathat ranges in between the value of 29 – 22. At this stage, it can be able to cause panicking while the person becomes more of hyperactive. The normal Betawhich ranges in between the value of 21.99-15 hertz has the person being very twitchy while the lower Beta which ranges at the value of 14.99-14.5hertz has less visibility of their surrounding and more feeling of the environment by the judgment of the brain in mediumship (Bastos et al., 2015). 

Moreover, Loveland (2013)saythat alpha ranges from the value of 13 to 8.5 hertz and the person in mediumship begins to close their eyes and attain a great sense of relaxation. Their rhythm gets slower than at the level of 8 hertz thereby bordering on the range of theta. At the stage where they attain the HigherAlphaof between the values of 13 hertz to 12 hertz, the person is very quiet in the state of mediumship.

The state of ThetaRanges from the value of 8 hertz to 4.1 hertz and it brings a sense of drowsiness and a state of arousal as observed during the process of mediumship. It is also the brain state in which there is an experience of excellent of psychics. The remote viewing is extended and there is also an astral projection that can be associated with the state of relaxation together with creativeness in the persongoing through the process of mediumship. At a higher Theta level with the value of8 hertz to 7hertz, the human brain losses its awareness and it has a lot of exterior focus (Bastos et al., 2015).

Medical, Scientific and Physic Analysis to describe Mediumship

There have been various medical and scientific research studies that have been able to depict the essence of mediumship in neuroscience.

Brainwaves that are Constant 

Pradhan and Dutt (1995) say that the human brain is always active, whether one is resting or they are asleep, meaning that the human brain always has an electrical activity. In the study, the frequency was monitored while the location for these electrical waves in the brain measured using an electroencephalography. The electrodes for measuring the waves were placed depending on the standard locations,and they closed their eyes for around 20 minutes so as to be able to go through the process of mediumship in a time of 20 minutes again using any order. These observation of a variation in the brainwaves and shifting of location from slower to faster electrical brainwaves (in the sense of Delta, that of theta, the alpha brainwaves, together with the beta brainwaves) indeed are a good indicator that the process or act of mediumship brings about some brain activity.

Attention is relaxed as Theta Displays

During the mediumship process, the theta waves happen to be promoting vivid flashes in the section called frontal lobe within the human brain. It is apparent that such waves tend to originate from the moment when relaxation is given more attention and also monitoring of the inner experiences. In a study by Loveland (2013), it has been shown that these theta waves happen to indicate there is a deep relaxation which occurs whenever mediumship is practiced. The source for these waves is most probably the frontal parts of the human brain, and can also be associated with the essence of monitoring the mental processes such as that of imagination or even thinking as a whole. The measure of mental calmness in such regions indeed signals that there is also the essence of physical relaxation as a general response to mediumship for the mental imagery being depicted as alluded to by Bastos et al. (2015) and Halloy (2016)in their studies.

Alpha Waves Silent Experiences 

Halloy (2016)says that the alpha waves have been able to show more awareness in a more relaxed manner as it also depicts more abundance towards the posterior region of the human brain at the time of mediumship since many studies such as that by Pradhan and Dutt (1995) have affirmed that the concept of mediumship brings about relaxation to the body and the human mind. The wave is also characteristic for a wakeful rest but may be offset by the disruption caused by the loss of concentration during the process of mediumship. It also has been applied universally as a technical sign to show relaxation especially during the process of mediumship together with other types of human resting. 

De Oliveira and Krippner (2013) saythat “Spontaneous wandering of the mind is something you become more aware of and familiar with when you go through the process of mediumship.” He further adds that “This default activity of the brain is often underestimated. It probably represents a kind of mental processing that connects various experiences,and emotional residuesput them into perspective and lay them to rest.”The alpha waves amount also tends to increase whenever the human brain relaxes especially when carrying out a goal-oriented project or even tasks. However, such a signal of deep relaxation doesn’t mean that a human mind can be regarded as a void as Loveland (2013) asserts in his study.

Different after sleep

Pradhan and Dutt (1995) say that the delta waves can be characterizedby the sleep of a human being and it is indeed real as his study depicts. In this study, there happened to be very little delta when the mind was relaxing or even carrying out tasks, or while they are undergoing a nondirective mediumship which was also found to be different from the frequency from sleep. The beta waves tend to occur whenever the human brain happens to be working an intensive goal-oriented task which includes things such as the general planning of a date together with the reflection actively over a certain issue. There are however fewer beta waves at the time of mediumship for the human brain or even when it’s resting. It is apparent that one step away from their own problems when they decide to undergo the essence of relaxation,and this can mainly be achieved through the practice of mediumship as Pradhan and Dutt (1995) affirm. 

Concentration Versus Nondirective

The study by Bastos et al. (2015); De Oliveira and Krippner (2013);Halloy (2016) and Loveland (2013) on the process of mediumship indicates that there is better relaxation together with stress management when someone decides to go through the general process of mediumship while following the techniques that control the mind content. “These methods are often described as nondirective because mediums do not actively pursue a particular experience or state of mind. They cultivate the ability to tolerate the spontaneous wandering of the mind without getting too much involved. Instead of concentrating on getting away from stressful thought and emotions, you simply let them pass in an effortless way” (Bastos et al., 2015).

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How Neuroscience and Clinical NeurophysiologydescribeMediumship

There have been various descriptions of mediumship in research studies that havebeen able to depict the essence of mediumshipinneuroscience. The various neurobiological studies have been carried out on the human brain to ascertain the fact that the brain is normally stimulated in an electrical manner and then it starts to function in a cortical way. Some have been able to prove that the consciousness state cannot be attained easily and cerebral cortex is the section where thiselectricstimulationhappens. Neuroscience and clinical neurophysiology describe mediumship as follows.


Neuroscience has been able to use the ideas of imaging in the form of “functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)” to depict the essence of brainwaves during the process of mediumship. The concept of fMRI detects any subtle increase in the flow of blood into areas of the brain that may be experiencing a high metabolic rate during the process of mediumship as Loveland (2013) depicts in his study. The study helps in determination of the regions or areas which definitely have an increased activity of metabolism, an indicator of the areas of the brain that currently are under use at the stimuli presented(Pradhan&Dutt, 1995).

A neuroimaging research for meta-analysis on the brain regions has been able to find out that the various regions are consistently altered, especially those of meta-awareness (such as the frontopolar cortex or that of the Brodmann area), that of exteroceptive together with the region of interoceptive awareness for the body (such as the sensory cortex together with the insular cortex). There is also the memory consolidation together with that of reconsolidation (called the hippocampus). 

Other regions that have been able to depict a change during the process of mediumship or mediation for the regulation of emotions are the anterior cortex at the cingulate together with the orbitofrontal cortex.  Lutz et al. (2008) say that the essence of interhemispheric communication which happens at the superior fasciculus that is longitudinal has been found to alter. The various changes have been distinguishable by their density increase especially when the grey matter areas are observed together with the white matter in the human brains that have been going through the process of mediumshipwith a comparison to those individuals that haven’t been going through the process of mediumship. In all these areas that have been able to report changes, the bigger numbers have been found to be in the left hemisphere.

There has also been evidence that really suggestsmediumship to be playing a key role in protection against any natural reduction in volume for the existing grey matter which is normally associated with aging. Another study by Pradhanand and Dutt (1995) found out that the Zen mediums have always experiencedtheslower aging process that is related to the decline in gray matter volume at the cerebral section, especially at the putamen area that normally plays a key role in the learning processes, the cognitive flexibility together with the attentional processes. This suggests the better attentiveness that is depicted by the aging mediums against those who do not practice the concept of mediumship. 

Some of the changes in the brain status have been found to occur in mediums in an exclusive manner,and this has been found to concentrate at the executive higher-order together with the association cortices. Such a finding could be applied to give support towards the notion which fronts the idea that mediumship increases the level of self-regulation together with attentiveness as it enhances the human brain and mind all together. Bastos et al. (2015) affirm in their study that these changes can also be able to alter the general functionality or even the connectivity for all the default network modes in the human brain and its various regions which may be active during the time of engaging in activities such as that of daydreaming. Some of the long-term mediumship people have been able to depict that they indeed have a very high tolerance towards pain. Such an effect can be correlated as to be an altered functionality in the structure of the somatosensory cortices with an increase in the ability for the decouple regions within the human brain that are also associated to the general cognitive appraisal for all pain (this is the anterior cortex at cingulate together with dorsolateral cortex in the prefrontal area of the brain).


Neurophysiologyindeedevaluates the brain under mediumship practices for the essence of quantifying the conclusions made under neuroscience. The concept of neurophysiologytries to use the electrical leads that may be placed on the human scalp so that they can be able to measure the collective activity of the electrical charges in the cerebral cortex region of the brain during the process of mediation. Specifically, Davidson and Lutz (2007) say that the EEG concept measures an electric field that may have been generated from the neurons within the brain. 

The psychic phenomenon that brings about “mediumistic art” in relation to the neurophysiology of a person is the entity which guides the relevant process for artwork creation. Through various case studies, this “mediumistic art” has been analyzed by the use of scientific point views, while classifying the particular phenomenon in an artistic creation that is abnormal or even an anomalous manifestation for the human creativity bringing about the idea of individuals that are also neurophysiological predispositionunderspecific contexts of culture as. According to the hypothesis by De Oliveira and Krippner (2013), the mirror neurons may tend to have the role that emergesin a particular form for creative dissociation which therefore can be detected during manifestation by the essence of “channeling phenomena,” a very distinctive ability for the general mediumship. 

Telepathy Phenomenon

The essence or concept of telepathy means feeling or perceiving or even experiencing it from a distance. It is also regarded as the purported information or data transmission without using a sensory channel for the physical interaction from one person to the other. The term telepathy has indeed remained to be more popular in the cultural and religious circles as it is used as an expression for thought-transference between the entities.Many psychologists together with academicians have not been able to accept any possibility for the concept brought about by psychic phenomena (in this sense, it is all about telepathy or pre-cognition) since they do not think that it is even slightly possible for it to happen. 

The essence of telepathy and for that matter, mediumship has always been regarded as just the act of sitting in front of crystals or candles, breathing in through awkward ways and going on with the business. However, mediumship simply helps the brain to work properly with a lot of concentration, or rumination or even intentional thinking. The various brainwaves have been able to give a suggestion that the mental activity that takes place during telepathy or during mediumship happens to be so wakeful and also brings relaxation for that matter. 

One of the concepts that can be used to describe the idea of telepathy is about quantum physics. Scientists have been able to disapprove the idea of telepathy for a long time as they say that it does contravene generally physics laws. Many say that if telepathy indeed exists, it would necessitate the revision of the understanding for the way our own universe really functions. However, there has not been any information being derived about the concepts that physics which deals with the microcosmic quantum is really based upon therefore the same does not even exclude any possibility that telepathy can happen. 

For example, Davidson and Lutz (2007) say that there has been a phenomenon for ‘quantum entanglement,’ which indeed ‘separates’ various particles that may seem to be interconnected, or they are reacting with movements of each other. In this instance, they cannot be treated to be independent units; they are treated as part of this system. With this in mind, it is possible for making the suggestion that all things may seem to be interconnected at the microcosmic level,and therefore there is a very big possibility that information may be exchanged via telepathy and this can also be linked onto the concept of the ‘field’ for sharing the consciousness that was prior described in this text. Such an idea can be applied to give an explanation of what really happens when particles are allowed to interconnect or even be able to ‘entangled.’

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Psychic Sense

Mankind is considered to be endowed with the sixth sense that is helpful for navigation through their own lives. The essence of the sixth sense (or the psychic ability of a person), can be termed as the ability to perceive the subtle-dimension together with the unseen world for the angels or even the ghosts or even spirits for that matter (De Oliveira &Krippner, 2013). This also includes the many abilities to understand the subtle causes together with the effective relationship behind so many events, which also go beyond the general understanding for all the intellect and may also involve things such as projecting a conscious awareness outside their own bodies. This concept can also be referred to as the extrasensory perception (or in another word the ESP) or the general premonition. Davidson and Lutz (2007) affirm that other instances have been able to refer to it as the intuition which is very synonymous as it regards the sixth sense and the psychic ability of the human being, especially during the time or the process of mediumship

Activation of the sixth sense (or the psychic ability) happens to be a very important phenomenon in the sense that it is a tool used for conducting some spiritual research. The participation in mediumship events eventually make it able for someone interested in it to get access to their sixth sense (or the psychic ability). If they find it hard to perceive what was intended while still in their subtle-dimension, such as spiritual practice helps one to progress, while gradually finding the correct grip of events and this is usually done with the help of the third eye or the sixth sense that they eventually find themselves to be in possession of as Pradhan and Dutt (1995) say in their general study. 

The human beings have been found to possess several senses that are additional besides having the usual or traditional five senses (which includes that of balance or acceleration, the one for limb position together with anatomically, the sense of temperature, the sense of pain, and the sense of internal state which can be separated by touch). In addition to that, Pradhan and Dutt (1995) ascertain that many animals also have extra additional senses that also go beyond those usual ones, especially the mammals in the category of animals. 

For instance, the bats usually have the essence of echolocation. However, not only are the mammals with such abilities as there is fish that can sense electric fields from a distance. This is a concept that can be regarded to as the sixth sense in the animals which also helps the mind of the animals in a broader sense. This sixth sense has been given a very good documentation especially with the regards to the general changes that the various animals behave in just before there could be an earthquake. Lutz et al. (2008) say thatthis could be a perception for the magnetic fields in which the animals have an ability to detect it or hearing the sounds together with the frequencies that cannot be perceived by the human beings.

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