Digital media & society essay questions


Discuss how Digital Media has transformed how organizations advertise and market their products and services.

  • Include a historical (before and after the digital media) and global perspective (include discussion of the US and at least two additional countries). Include whether the change has been positive, negative, or both. Support your discussion with reliable sources.

Digital media has brought several changes in marketing and advertising of products in US and other countries of the world. Advertising through digital media such as internet is the extension of traditional means of marketing and advertising. Digital media works better as volume of traffic and viewers becomes large.

Although, marketing and advertising industry was emerged in 1970s and consolidated in 1980s because of acquisitions and mergers between companies. A US company “Young & Rubicam and Omni Group” became a global marketing company in 1980s. Digital marketing and advertising in US started in the same decade. Integrated marketing and advertising with digital media, mobile media and internet too matured in US in 1980s (Jones and Tadajewski, 2016).

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New developments in mobile telecommunication brought several advantages for companies in US, UK, Germany and Spain. In these countries, marketing companies cooperate with each other in sharing of the investment costs. Companies in these countries provide a mutual support to each other in marketing of their products. For example, Vodafone and Telefonica agreed to share the infrastructure of 3G mobile phones in Spain, Germany, UK and Ireland in March 2009.

For advertising, search advertising uses the bidding on keywords that impacts the position of text ads. In addition to search advertising on digital media, display ads is found in the form of multimedia or text images. Yahoo and Google companies are using the same type of advertising. In other cases, companies place ad servers and these servers analyze the contents given on the web pages and deliver to users automatically by considering their interest. Classify ads, email-advertising and referrals are other types of advertising the products on digital media. In 2008, advertising market for US advertising companies was $51 billion. In contrast to it, European advertising market was worth $ 18 billion. However, there is a gap that people in US and European countries spend time and money on online advertising but in other countries of world, this trend of time and money expending is very low. For example, revenue from traditional advertising is low as compared to advertising on digital media. MySpace and YouTube have competitive pressure on other companies as advertisers turn to new advertising inventories and suppliers (Perset, 2010).

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Marketing and advertising campaigns on digital media increasingly cross the national boundaries. Coordination between marketing and advertising companies is growing throughout the world. A number of countries have the same principles for advertising and marketing the products for companies. Online marketing and advertising have brought fantastic tools of communication. Advertisers and marketers use these tools to speak their audience and encourage them to become visitor if their websites. Search marketing is particularly focused on the targeted audiences. Marketing and advertising companies make the best use of digital media to present their products and services on various platforms such as mobiles, desktop websites and gaming websites.

How has Digital Media influenced (or changed) the field of education?

  • Include a historical (before and after the digital media) and global perspective (include discussion of the US and at least two additional countries). Include whether the change has been positive, negative, or both.
    Support your discussion with reliable data. Support your discussion with reliable sources.

US population is comprised of 5% of Asian American. Asian Americans racial group and their number increased by 43% as revealed in U.S. Census Bureau in 2011. Unlike other American, Asian Americans are not seen in mainstream of digital media. They are least role playing in the network shows. Network Television produces more opportunities for US citizens to make programs.  Are these alternative messages produced from images reach to Asian Americans?  Media stereotypes, do not have causal, direct and strong relationship with racial behaviors and attitudes (Frechette and Williams, 2015). Digital games has been considered an integrated approach in the educational perspectives. Digital games as an entertainment media have increasingly gained attention to facilitate the learning processes. Potential advantage of the digital game for learning processes has been widely explored. In the digital age, educational gaming is promoted to overcome the learning challenges in schools and universities. Turnover on digital games was more than 13 billion euros in 2012. On social networks, more than 510 million people played the digital games all over the world. Top listed games played on Xfire/Frobes were accessed by 2 billion hours in North-America and Europe for a year (Peres and Mesquita, 2015).

In a research work Chu et al., (2010) reported that main factors that influenced the digital divide were personal, region, race and geographical factors. Other than these factors, school factors (quality of education, IT equipment and maintenance) and teachers’ factors (learning attitude, capability and education training) are importantly emphasized. Digital divide is itself a deficiency that must be addressed in academic institutes. Both, school factors and teachers’ factors should be addressed to reduce the digital divide on campuses. School should adopt systematic IT plans to improve the digital media structure to increase the opportunities for teachers to use the digital media in classes. IT equipment should be provided to teachers for using in class rooms. Parents and students at homes and school campuses should have access to information about progress of students. It is duty of relevant governments to provide substantial digital material to all academic institutes in their countries.

Latin America and Argentina have several challenges of media literacy for education. First challenge is to concern the goal of digital media to reinforce the education in both countries. Digital media is a force that strengthens the educational culture to make youth more understandable based on digital media standards. Students need to have freely access to information. In some countries teachers were living for many years under the army dictatorship and left many scars. Large number of people in Latin America and Argentina do not have access to media library such as newspaper, internet access and magazines (Abreu et al., 2017).

In America, digital media has become now an integral part of school for majority students. Before the introduction of digital media, student in American used paper based material to keep the information about their lectures. A screen based technology has made it easier for students to understand the objects and acquire the knowledge in academic institutes of U.S.A. Like Latin America and Argentina, many poor families all around the world suffer from same situation of no access to digital information.  Poor families in countries do not have enough budget to survive in this world and digital media is beyond their access to be used in school education.

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How has Digital Media influenced (or changed) politics (election campaigning, public opinion, law passing)?

  • Include a historical (before and after the digital media) and global perspective (include discussion of the US and at least two additional countries).  Include whether the change has been positive, negative, or both. Support your discussion with reliable data.

Digital media is used for campaigning the election in modern world countries. In previous Presidential election, Donald trump used the Twitter and Facebook as a media driven landscape. Major aim behind using the digital media is to spread a piece of a new information without considering the reliable sources. This news should be shocking and surprising that also confirms the prejudices. Donald Trump with his camp accessed the Facebook algorithms as told by Mathew Hindman from George Washington University. Online publications were used to promote the Trump propaganda and fake news. Trump used Twitter feed as a valuable tool to attract the millions of people. Before these elections in USA, Brexit referendum in Britain was highly impacted by the role of digital media. Digital media was used to spread the half-truths as well as outright lies. Another example of digital media based election campaign is about French Presidential elections (United States, 2016).

Political participation and internet study expanded since 1990s. In the earlier studies, only political behaviors such as attitudes, voting, interest and trust of people on internet use have been mentioned. Some of the scholars called that internet was eroding the civic interaction and reinforced the participatory biases and also reduced the pool of citizens. In the beginning of 21st century people used offline participation like emailing to government officials, blogging, following the politicians on twitter and commenting on videos. American electorate system through e-participation has been widely studied in recent research articles. However, a geographic gap has been not covered so for. There are few western democracies which have incorporated the digital media in their election campaigns. These western democracies include as Spain and Germany. Other than these countries, UK and Australia also include in the list of countries where digital media has been placed in election campaign for last many years. As mentioned earlier, that France is also mover of digital media in election campaign. Efforts made by socialist party in France in 2007 for presidential election are very common to Obama’s use of digital technology in 2008 for election campaign.  Outcome of the digital media based campaign increased the participation of citizens in presidential elections in France and USA. Digital media campaign diminished the divide between genders because younger voters two showed predominant interest in voting.  Comparing the history of e-voting, and e-campaign, ratio of e-voting remains higher for USA citizens as compared to France and Germany in Europe. This is because, American voters listen the speeches, debates and other announcement of their party candidates. This trend has not grown in France and other European countries. In modern world countries, candidates of political parties air the tweets and post the news on Facebook. However, keeping one away from social movement programs may result into no success or near to failure. In developing countries, trend of digital media based campaign is also increasing (Cantijoch and Gibson, 2013).

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How has Digital Media influenced (or changed) children of this generation? How are their lives different than ours?

  • Include a historical (before and after the digital media) and global perspective (include discussion of the US and at least two additional countries). Include whether the change has been positive, negative, or both.  Support your discussion with reliable data.

Digital media is playing a central role in advancement in the children’s lives. However, some of the critique do not embrace this statement. In the Pew Internet Survey in USA, it was reported that more than 50% children aged between 12-17 years used networking websites by 2007. In the same report, it was told that older teens were more interested in using the digital media i.e. social networking websites. Another observation from this survey was made that teens from low income families spent more time on social networking websites as compared to teens from wealthier families. There are some common observation from study on digital media and its impacts on children in USA. Most of children behave in changing ways and become creative thinkers and generate new realities. However, self-determination, imagination, risk-taking and immersion have been reported as closely related to thinking. Assuming that young children are more vulnerable and need protection by their own self and others. Digital media provides more opportunities to children to become a highly visible on social websites. It brings more risks for young children of bullying and also digital media acts as an agent to bring changes in their lives.

On contrary to these negative impacts of digital media on childhood and families, a number of advantages of using digital media are reported. For example, in USA and European countries i.e. Spain and France, a large number of families see their youth in 21st century to promote the global economy. This statement is already signaled an initiative to promote economic competitiveness through digital media in the Europe 2020 strategy. It is also mentioned that digital literacy as well as digital capabilities of all citizens in Europe should be enhanced by 2020 (Craft, 2010). In another research, Escobar-Chaves et al., (2005) reported that two thirds children aged between 8 and 18 years lived at their homes with the facility of cable TV or satellite TV. Children from black families were reported to have more cable or satellite connections in their bedrooms as compared to white youths. Teens sued channel surfing through a variety of cable networks and Black Entertainment Television remained dominant in terms of surfing. By watching sexual contents over cable network, teens had been impacted by the sexual scenes. Increase in sexual behavior makes the adolescents to grow older as compared to other teens (Escobar-Chaves et al., 2005). Besides US and European countries, Arab countries have different perception of parents on using the digital media at their homes. Media contents displayed on websites and mobile applications create worries for Arab parents. According to Arab parents, media contents have negative impacts on children’s emotional, mental and social developments. However, domestication theory mentions the modifications and innovations brought by digital media in the children’s everyday activities at schools and homes (Abreu et al., 2017).

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  1. Abreu B., Mihailidis P., Lee A., Meiki J., and McDougall J. (2017). International Handbook of Media Literacy Education. Milton Park. Taylor & Francis.
  2. Cantijoch M., and Gibson R. (2013). Engagement in the online campaign in the United States and France. A comparative Analysis. General conference of the ECPR, Bordeaux France. September 4-7. 2013. Pp. 1-31.
  3. Chu Y., Hsu L., and Yang J. (2010). A study of analyzing IT digital coping strategies. Informatica, 34. 177-187.
  4. Craft A. (2012). Childhood in a digital age: Creative challenges for educational futures, London Review of Education. 1-19.
  5. Escobar-Chaves, S. Liliana, et al. (2005) “Impact of the media on adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors.” Pediatrics, 1-26.
  6. Frechette J., and Williams R. (2015). Media Education for a digital generation. New York. Routledge.
  7. Jones B., and Tadajewski M. (2016). The Routlegde Companion to Marketing History. New York. Routledge.
  8. Peres P., and Mesquita A. (2015). ECSM2015-Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Social Media 2015: ECSM 2015. Academic Conferences Limited.
  9. Perset K. (2010). The Economic and Social role of internet intermediaries, OECD Digital Economy Papers.
  10. United States. (2016). The role of technology in Presidential election, The Economist. Available from Accessed on 15/10/2017.
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