Table of Contents
National Park services in the US are part of the functions provided for by the United States Federal Government. Park Services are protected by the National Park Service Organic Act which was established by congress in 1916 (Warwick and Hall, 2009). The park services have been listed to cover the following areas; national parks, monuments, memorials, historic sites, parkways, recreational areas, seahorse’s scenic river ways, trails and others related areas. They basically preserve the places where people and time come together to create a rich tapestry of national heritage.
The following report discusses the relevance of national parks and services and how they contribute to the environment, ecology, history and tourism in the USA.
Leon, ( 2016) explains that the national park services are offered in an online platform which not only highlights the services but also records experiences of their visitors and allows the client population to search Parks to visits by state. The national park service’s aim to preserve the American culture, history and nature for current and posterior generations. There are a total of 58 national parks in the United States. Marquee parks in the USA include the Yellowstone, Grand Canyon and Yosemite. Although these parks attract high numbers of people they have higher admission rates and draw bigger crowds which has its own types of constraints. Alaska is recorded as the largest state in the USA it also boasts of four of the largest national parks namely: St. Elias Wrangley, Gates of Arctic, Denali and Katmai (nps.gov, (2017).
The tourism sector in the USA is a multimillion industry which owes credit to the national park services in the region. This is according to records of 2015, which was the centennial year that celebrated 305 million visitors (Ernesto, Souza and Thapa, 2015). The report records that there are around 409 parks covering around 84 million acres in the 50 states. The Travel and Tourism Economic Report of 2015 records that using 2014-2015 statistics the tourism industry contributed to the country’s GDP by 10% whose equivalent is USD$7.6 trillion and created 277 million jobs whose ratio was 1: 11 jobs for each employment offer. The report further expounds that these international visitors spent nearly 1.14 billion dollars( (Scowsill, 2015). This explains that America is generally becoming a preferred holiday destination for many all over the world.
The National Park services as earlier stated has adopted modern technology with an online platform highlighting various services offered. John, (2009) explains the park system offers periodic reports to their clients of the visitations frequency to different parks. They also have modified their system to allow for visitors to be able to estimate the amount of fuel needed so as to explore different parks. The system also allows for visitors to locate nearby parks according to GPS location and also by state. The system also offers services such as notification of events due to happen in the various places in the country. The most recent event is the Castle Clinton Guided Tour to the Castle Clinton Monument set on 28th April 2017. The park system allows for billing for the different passes which visitors can schedule visits prior to the days of interest. The service system also offers educational tips on issues related to history, nature, and the environment at large (Yellowstone Planner, 2009).
In 2014 through the National Action Plan on Responsible Business, National Park Services called for community social responsibility in their interactions with the location of operation. In a bid to encourage adherence to this law, the service has sought to expand the scope of its services with interaction with the communities. The national park services has invited the public in care and preservation of more than 400 parks under its program. These partnerships have created historic preservation, civic partnerships and outdoor recreation programs. For example, teaching with historic sites such as visits to sites such as the Eleanor Roosevelt ‘’ Val –Kill ‘’ cottage inspires memory of the fight against civil rights and injustices (National Park Services Policies, 2006).
There is a huge wildlife variety in the USA parks that attract many visitors to wildlife watching. America boasts of a unique population of at least 25 animals which cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Beethan, 2007, expounds that this special category comprises of both vertebra and non-vertebrates. Some of these include the chicken turtle (Deirochelys reticularia) which is described as an uncommon freshwater turtle found in South east of the United states. The pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis) is popular due to its ability to dig its own burrow and also it is recorded as the world’s smallest rabbit in the family of leporids. It is however a disturbing fact to discover that the Columbia Basin Pygmy rabbit population has been declared as an endangered species by the U.S Federal government which runs the national park services .
National Park services are also concerned with ecology and the ecosystem. Ecology is defined as the scientific study of organisms between living organisms and their environment. Environment comprises of all the factors outside the organism that influence it. These factors could be living scientifically referred to as biotic or non-living which is abiotic. Andy and Lynes, (2008) explain that biotic interactions in an organism is anything living thing that can cause benefit or harm. For example, habitats for animals in parks can be influenced by the type of predators, food or flora and fauna in the area of existence.
America is recognized in the world as home to some of the most unique species which have also been battling extinction. In relation to ecology an example would be the Shortnose gar, is a primitive freshwater fish it is found in calm waters of large river and lakes such as Mississippi and Missouri river basins. It helps contains the eco system equilibrium by feeding on minnows which are destructive to game fish and other fish. The Blue Cray Fish is found in fresh waters and is endemic to Florida. Its attractive blue color attracts sales especially in aquarium trade worldwide. It feeds on organic waste and dead fish cleaning up rivers and lakes (Mel, 2009).
Abiotic factors include the non-living factors such as the temperature, amount of water, pollution, humidity or global warming that affect the habitat of an organism. There have been cases recorded of turtles in USA waters being found with rings and plastic bags on their shells which have contributed to mutation of the body form which have adverse effects on them. Such cases exist due to pollution of water masses by dumping waste near water masses. Oil spillage has also been felt in the USA the most renowned case being the Exxon Valdez of 1989. Carolyn , ( 2006) quotes in her work that the consequences of the spill has been felt to date with periodic massive deaths recorded among the fish and sea plants populations. Birds are also affected especially the wading birds whose feathers are glued together by oil making it impossible to flee from predators or find food.
- Excellent quality
- 100% Turnitin-safe
- Affordable prices
Discussions on National Park Services cannot be fully exhausted due to their interactions with other disciplines. However the success of the federal government has been felt greatly among American citizens. Although challenges to this department may exist such bureaucracy, miscommunication and misappropriation of funds by the federal government the general condition of America’s parks is satisfactory to many (Randa et. Al, 2016). These services go a long way in maintain the American image, the image of legends.
- Bishop, Randa et al. Southwest USA & National Parks. 1st ed. London [etc.]: Dorling Kindersley, 2016. Print.
- David , Scowsill. Travel and Tourism Economic Impact 2015 USA. Washington D.C.; 2015.Print. Accessible at : https://www.wttc.org/-/media/files/reports/economic%20impact%20research/countries%202015/unitedstatesofamerica2015.pdf [Accessed on 29th April 2017]
- Dobson, Andy, and Laura Lynes. “How Does Poaching Affect The Size Of National Parks?”. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23.4 (2008): 177-180. Web.
- Frost, Warwick, and C. Michael Hall. Tourism And National Parks. 1st ed. New York: Routledge, 2009. Print.
- Leon, S. M. “Review: National Park Services Official Smartphone Applications. National Park Service, Creator”. The Public Historian 38.4 (2016): 326-328. Web.
- Merchant, Carolyn. Major Problems In American Environmental History. 1st ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006. Print.
- Miles, John C. Wilderness In National Parks. 1st ed. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2009. Print.
- Morgan, Bethan. “BIODIVERSITY ANIMAL TREASURY”. Biodiversity 8.2 (2007): 25-31. Web.
- National Park Services . 2017. Accessible at https://www.nps.gov/getinvolved/communities.htm [Accessed on 29th April 2017]
- National Park Service’s Draft Management Policies. 1st ed. Washington: U.S. G.P.O., 2006. Print.
- The National Park Service’s Funding Needs. 1st ed. Washington: U.S. G.P.O., 2005. Print.
- Viveiros de Castro, Ernesto, Thiago Beraldo Souza, and Brijesh Thapa. “Determinants Of Tourism Attractiveness In The National Parks Of Brazil”. PARKS 21.2 (2015): n. pag. Web.
- White, Mel. Complete National Parks Of The United States. 1st ed. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 2009. Print.
- Yellowstone National Park Trip Planner, 2010. 1st ed. Yellowstone National Park, WY: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, 2009. Print