Proxemics studies space and distance as influence in non-verbal communication. This is be divided into public, social, personal and intimate distances that are elliptical than circular taking more of the front space. Public space is more formal and less intimate and starts around twelve feet away. This is mostly seen in formal speeches where individuals are separate from the audience giving a sense of power, safety or security. It does not have a deep conversation as one speaks louder with long distances from the audience( University of Minnesota).
Social space 4-12 feet from the body and preffered in proffessional settings. Personal space extends 1.5-4 feet from the body whereby persons in this zone may use verbal communication and at times be uncomfortable in this zone. It can be divided into two: outer-personal, 2.5- 4 feet in private non-interpersonal conversations and inner-personal, 1.5- 2.5 feet for people with interpersonal closeness where physical touch is seen( University of Minnesota).
Intimate space is reserved for closest realtions where verbal and physical touch is evident. The closeness gives comfort even when words fail with individuals seen uncomfortable seeing others in public being intimate. When these territories are breached, individuals rely on non-verbal means to defend personal space. ( University of Minnesota).
Paralanguage, uses pitch, volume, rate, vocal quality and verbal fillers. Pitch, regulates conversational flow, conveys meaning and communicates intensity of message. Volume communicates intensity and is adjusted based on setting, distance and relationship. Speaking rate can be fast or slow than 120- 150 words/ minute normal speech. A slow one is boring while a fast one difficult to follow. These three determine the quality while verbal fillers fill gaps help keep the conversation during a pause (Adam Brown, 3).
- University of Minnesota. Types of nonverbal communication<http://open.lib.umn.edu/communication/chapter/4-2-types-of-nonverbal-communication/>
- Adam Brown. The use of nonverbal features in teaching phonetics. http:// www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/ptlc/proceedings/ptlcpaper_24e.pdf