Table of Contents
Many individuals who travel to or reside in foreign countries have often risked being racially discriminated. In fact, King, Avery, and Sackett observe that racism is a reality whose consequences on the victims are worthy of scholarly scrutiny (375). This phenomenon is actually a reality in America where many aliens are made to feel inferior because of their race. As Ullucci records, perhaps there is nothing that causes more psychological torture to foreigners in America than the fear of being segregated (539). Blacks have been perpetual victims of racism in the country. Ullucci further notes that although there may be varied socioeconomic opportunities for the blacks in America, sometimes they regret their background (533). This is because they are locked out of these opportunities in a number of ways. The purpose of this essay is to investigate instances of racism in education, cultures, and sports.
Racism in Education
To begin with, racism is evident in education. The justification of this claim is based on various experiences during admission, testing, and the general treatment of students in a multiracial setting. According to Leonardo and Harris, the unfair treatment of aliens by raising the admission requirements is an indicator of racism (472). This is the idea cushioned by Marcus who opines that constant labeling and unfair treatment directed towards minority races in educational setups proves the existence of racism in education (185). Additionally, when one fills the admission forms, they often indicate “white” in order not to be locked out. A case in point is recorded by Ulluci who observes that Africans, Asians, and other non-Americans often undergo varying degrees of distress due to racial backgrounds (535). The final evidence of racism in education borders on limited higher education and punishment meted to blacks. In their research on this topic, Skiba et al. note that disproportionate punishment to blacks and limited higher education opportunities directly show how racism exists in education (318).
with any paper
Cultural racism is another form of prejudice that has adversely affected many victims. According to Fishbein, instances of discrimination based on culture have often seen many minority races excluded from various settings because of their culture (23). By way of example, Afro-Americans, Latino, Indian-Americans and other minority races have been advised to maintain their cultural identity and existence as a way of avoiding cultural assimilation. This is discriminatory. Addressing this, Seaton and Douglass note that minority races often suffer intolerance in different settings thus feeling discriminated because of cultural differences (156). For example, free interaction with minority races faces hurdles as rules are prescribed forbidding such. Oswald et al. reveal how Asians and blacks lack the sensual appeal that would attract them to American ladies (172). In particular, these two races have to spend more money on their physical outlook before considering approaching an American lady. Although American men may date Asians and Africans with some ease, it is often noted that the Africans and Asians are considered subservient. This inequality promotes a sense of inferiority in America. Racism is therefore real in America. Closely linked to this is a negative portrayal of minority races by media as violent, subservient and uncultured individuals. These are evidence of cultural racism in America.
Racism in Sports
Thirdly, racism exists in sports in different ways. Victims of racism in sports cite premeditated red tape rules that seek to limit recruitment, remuneration, eligibility, and nomination for certain medals. According to Cranfield, Inwood, and Ross, instances of discrimination of Africans and Asians are evident in recruitment, remuneration, and eligibility for Olympics even when these people possess superior abilities (129). All these show that racial discrimination is not dead in America. To buttress this point further, Cranfield, Inwood, and Ross further confess that there are times when biased nominations have been made in favor of silver medalists when it is clear there was a gold medalist (128). The fact that one comes from a “wrong” race automatically locks them out of these nominations. Further, it is revealed how many Africans have confessed their sorrow in schools where basketball is played. This idea is equally mentioned by Ulluci who notes that racism does not only manifest itself in corrupt nominations but also limited opportunities to participate in various international tournaments (538).
Refutation of claims on Reverse Racism
As serious as racism is in America, it should be observed that Americans as the majority groups have equally suffered prejudice from minorities. Scholars such as L. James, S. James, and Vila have stressed that tables have turned and Americans are presently discriminated in education and other sectors of the economy by minority groups (459). This concept is referred to as reverse racism. L. James, S. James, and Vila note that reverse racism adversely affects whites in classes through denial of privileges and harassment based on color (459). Although this is an undeniable fact, there are many scholars who disagree with these contentions. To establish this point, it is important to mention that minorities constitute less than half the total population in America. It, therefore, beats logic to overrule that Americans suffer racism more than minorities. The fact is echoed by Marcus who says that although reverse racism is evident in education, sports, and other sectors, its consequences would be somehow insignificant compared to regular racism (185). Racism, therefore, takes a toll on minority groups as opposed to majority groups.
Refutation of opposing ideas on Cultural Racism
Many ideas have been advanced claiming that blacks are ignorant and have the tendency to misunderstand the culture of other races. Proponents of this idea also opine that culture must be understood in terms of context and history. Further, others argue that all races do not have equal status and opportunities due to their varied backgrounds. This has been the justification for racial prejudice based on cultural backgrounds. However, an interesting revelation by Harper shows that perhaps Americans are more ignorant than the blacks about varied cultures (647). Additionally, the fact that these minority groups have outshone in different sectors of the American economy is confirmation that the prejudice based on culture is flawed reasoning. Although the American economy gives indigenous citizens an advantage of a developed economic status, fair competition among various races has revealed that cultural difference is a non-issue in the world. Therefore, all attitudes towards minority groups are unwarranted because in any case, these minority groups even have richer backgrounds. Racism is not justified on historical backgrounds.
In conclusion, this discussion has investigated racial discrimination in education, cultural and sporting activities. Racism indeed exists to date in many fields. It is evident that racism is a vice whose consequences have been felt globally. Through unfair treatment and prejudices, victims of racism have registered varied degrees of distress in the hands of majority groups who are whites. A number of ideas have been advanced to justify the vice. However, this essay has successfully refuted these arguments and found them flawed in reasoning. It is therefore important to treat each other fairly because everyone has similar abilities irrespective of the color of the skin.
- Cranfield, John, Kris Inwood, and J. Andrew Ross. “Ethnic Inequality in Professional Sport: A Question of Discrimination in the National Hockey League Draft.” Sports through the Lens of Economic History (2016): 128-41.
- Croom, Marcus. “Leonardo, Z. (2013). Race frameworks: A multidimensional theory or racism and education. New York: Teachers College Press.” Journal of Urban Learning Teaching and Research 12 (2016): 184-186.
- Fishbein, Harold D. Peer prejudice and discrimination: The origins of prejudice. Psychology Press, 2014.
- Harper, Shaun R. “Black male college achievers and resistant responses to racist stereotypes at predominantly White colleges and universities.” Harvard Educational Review 85.4 (2015): 646-674.
- James, Lois, Stephen M. James, and Bryan J. Vila. “The Reverse Racism Effect.” Criminology & Public Policy 15.2 (2016): 457-479.
- King, Eden B., Derek R. Avery, and Paul Sackett. “Three Perspectives of Employment Discrimination 50 Years After the Civil Rights Act—A Promise Fulfilled?” Journal of Business and Psychology 28.4 (2013): 375-382.
- Leonardo, Zeus, and Angela P. Harris. “Living with racism in education and society: Derrick Bell’s ethical idealism and political pragmatism.” Race Ethnicity and Education 16.4 (2013): 470-488.
- Oswald, Frederick L., et al. “Predicting ethnic and racial discrimination: A meta-analysis of IAT criterion studies.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 105.2 (2013): 171.
- Seaton, Eleanor K., and Sara Douglass. “School diversity and racial discrimination among African-American adolescents.” Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 20.2 (2014): 156.
- Skiba, Russell J., et al. “The color of discipline: Sources of racial and gender disproportionality in school punishment.” The Urban Review 34.4 (2002): 317-342.
- Ullucci, Kerri. “Book Review: Racism Without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States.” Urban Education 41.5 (2006): 533-540.